A significant number of migrants detained by the bodies of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine have no identity documents which would allow establishing their identities. The methods of finding out personal data of such individuals are limited and need to be further regulated. Relevant law enforcement activities have been insufficiently investigated, and this is a weighty aspect affecting the national security in the context of current migration threats. This study is aimed at clarifying the purpose, legal nature and specific features of legal provisions regulating the identification of illegal migrants discovered by the bodies of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, and also at determining their powers within the framework of protection of Ukraine’s State border and control of entry into Ukraine and exit from Ukraine of foreigners and stateless persons. The article used the results of the 2017 survey of military personnel and employees of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine conducted with a focus on the methods to be used for identification of foreigners and stateless persons. The article analyzes the types of identification procedures depending on the tasks allocated to units of the State Border Guard Service and marks out border control identification and identification for forced deportation (readmission) outside of Ukraine. It is established that current laws specify such identification methods as checking of documents and making requests to diplomatic missions or consular offices The staff of the State border guard bodies and units also consider ad hoc means of identification (monitoring of Internet resources, psychological supervision, contacts with diasporas in the country, and socio-cultural comparison) as an additional way of finding some more information about an illegal migrant. The author proposes to characterize illegal migrant identification as a legal administrative mechanism which allows comprehensively considering all of the aspects of such law enforcement activities. The author believes that this mechanism may be improved by extending the range of identification means and by regulating the powers of its implementation. The prospects of use of identification methods are linked to the need of preventing the entry of undesirable persons to the territory of Ukraine. Biometric recording will gain more scope, just like its use in combination with traditional methods of State border control.
List of legal documents
1. Instruktsiia pro prymusove povernennia i prymusove vydvorennia z Ukrainy inozemtsiv ta osib bez hromadianstva [Guidelines for Forced Readmission to and Forced Deportation from Ukraine of Foreigners and Stateless Persons]: zatverdzena nakazom Ministerstva vnutrishnikh sprav Ukrainy, Administratsii derzhavnoi prykordonnoi sluzhby Ukrainy, Sluzhby bezpeky Ukrainy [Approved by Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the Administration of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, the Security Service of Ukraine] vid 23 kvitnia 2012 r. № 353/271/150, zareiestrovana v Ministerstvi yustytsii Ukrainy [Registered in the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine] 21 travnia 2012 r. za № 806/21119, Ofitsiinyi visnyk Ukrainy, 2012, no. 42, Article 1633 (in Ukrainian).
2. Instruktsiia z orhanizatsii i zdiisnennia perevirky dokumentiv hromadian Ukrainy, Inozemtsiv ta osib bez hromadianstva, yaki peretynaiut derzhavnyi kordon [Guidelines for Organization and Making of the Check of Documents of Ukrainian Citizens, Foreigners and Stateless Persons Crossing the State Border]: zatverdzena nakazom Administratsii derzhavnoi prykordonnoi sluzhby Ukrainy [Approved by Order of the Administration of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine] vid 5 chervnia 2012 r. № 407, zareiestrjvano v Ministerstvi yustytsii Ukrainy [Registered in the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine] vid 27 chervnia 2012 r. za № 1083/21395, Ofitsiinyi Visnyk Ukrainy, 2012, no. 50, Article 2003 (in Ukrainian).
3. Pro bizhentsiv ta osib, yaki potrebuiut dodatkovoho abo tymchasovoho zakhystu [On Refugees and Persons in Need of Additional or Temporary Protection]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 8 lypnia 2011 r. № 3671-VI, Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 2012, no 16, Article 146 (in Ukrainian).
4. Pro posylennia kontroliu za vizdom v Ukrainu, vyizdom z Ukrainy inozemtsiv ta osib bez hromadianstva, doderzhanniam nymy pravyl perebuvannia na terytorii Ukrainy [On Enhancement of Control over Entry to Ukraine and Departure from Ukraine of Foreigners and Stateless Persons, and Over Their Compliance with the Rules of Stay in Ukraine]: rishennia Rady natsionalnoi bezpeky i oborony Ukrainy [the Decision of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine] vid 10 lypnia 2017 r.: vvedene v diiu Ukazom Prezydenta Ukrainy [Enacts Decree of the President of Ukraine] vid 30 serpnia 2017 r. № 256/2017, Uriadovyi Kurier, 2 veresnia 2017 (in Ukrainian).
5. Pro pravovyi status inozemtsiv ta osib bez hromadianstva [On Legal Status of Foreigners and Stateless Persons]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 22 veresnia 2011 r. № 3773-VI, Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 2012, no. 19–20, Article 179 (in Ukrainian).
6. Pro yedynyi derzhavnyi demohrafichnyi reiestr ta dokumenty, shcho pidtverdzhuiut Hromadianstvo Ukrainy, posvidchuiut osobu chy yii spetsialnyi status [On the Unified State Demographic Register and Documents which Confirm the Ukrainian Citizenship, the Identity of a Person or His / Her Special Status]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 20 lystopada 2012 r. № 5492-VI, Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 2013, no. 51, Article 716 (in Ukrainian).
7. Uhoda mizh Ukrainoiu ta Yevropeiskym Spivtovarystvom pro readmisiiu osib [Agreement between Ukraine and the EU on Readmission of Persons] vid 18 chervnia 2007 r, Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 2008, no 9, Article 86 (in Ukrainian).
8. Ysiutyn-Fedotkov D, Krymynalystycheskyi slovar-spravochnyk [Criminalistic Forensic Glossary] (Yurlytynform 2010) (in Russian).
9. Bilokon O, ‘Metody identyfikatsii inozemnoho hromadianyna’ [‘Methods for Identification of a Foreign National’] (2014) (2)9-2 Naukovyi visnyk mizhnarodnoho humanitarnoho universytetu, Seriia: Yurysprudentsiia 54 accessed 12 December 2017 (in Ukrainian).
10. Ortynskyi V, ‘Metodolohichni pidkhody do stvorennia kryminalistychnoho zabezpechennia sudovoi diialnosti v administratyvnomu protsesi’ [‘Methodological Approaches to the Establishment of Forensic Support of Judicial Activities in the Administrative Process’] (2017) 865 Visnyk NU “Lvivska Politekhnika”, Seriia: Yurydychni nauky 4 (in Ukrainian).
11. Protskykh O, ‘Zastosuvannia protsedur vstanovlennia osoby pid chas peretynu administratyvnykh mezh iz tymchasovo okupovanoiu terytoriieiu Ukrainy’ [‘Appli cation of the Personal Identification Procedures in Case of Crossing the Administrative Borders with the Temporarily Occupied Territory of Ukraine’] (2014) 3 Pravo i bezpeka 81 (in Ukrainian).
12. Filippov M, ‘Osoblyvosti ne instrumentalnoi detektsii nedostovirnoi informatsii pravoporushnykiv na derzhavnomu kordoni’ [‘Specific Features of Non-Instrumental Detection of False Information of Offenders at the State Border’] (avtoref dys kand psykh nauk, Nats Akademiia derzh prykordonnoi sluzhby Ukrainy im B Khmelnytskoho 2014) (in Ukrainian).
13. ‘Mihratsiinyi profil Ukrainy za 2016 r.’ [‘Migration Profile of Ukraine for Year 2016’] (Derzhavna mihratsiina sluzhba Ukrainy 2017) accessed 10 December 2017 (in Ukrainian).
14. ‘Rezultaty operatyvno-sluzhbovoi diialnosti Derzhprykordonsluzhby: potochnyi rik’ [‘Results of Official Operational Activities of the State Border Guard Service: Current Year’] (Derzhavna prykordonna Sluzhba Ukrainy 16 Sichnia 2018) accessed 17 January 2018 (in Ukrainian).