Article title Modern Legal Doctrine of Citizenship: Issues and Development Prospects
Name of magazine Legal journal «Law of Ukraine» (Ukrainian version)
Issue 4/2018
Сторінки [147-164]

In today’s world abound with democratic values, permanent globalization, civilization and migration processes, and the development of information technologies, each study having a focus on citizenship uses not only such categories as sustainability and certainty, but also not infrequently the categories of relativity and probability. First of all, this is relevant to analytical and statistical expert reports, forecasts and programs of development of the State and society, working out of efficient mechanisms for the exercise of public authority, modernization of current legislation and implementation of international practices and standards relating to the legal status of an individual, with a special focus on citizenship. The article attempts at extrapolating the peculiarities pertaining to the modern discourse of the legal doctrine of citizenship, in particular, with regard to the grounds for gaining citizenship by a person since birth and for the emergence of dual (multiple) citizenship, as well as with regard to the up-to-date perception of the institution of citizenship based on the European and international experience. In our opinion, the modern legal doctrine of citizenship is a set (synthesis) of interdisciplinary legal and other (economic, historical, political, philosophical, etc.) knowledge about the permanent effective relationship between an individual and the State, the doctrine of the dynamics (regularities) and the main trends found in their relationship. Furthermore, of no less importance are such elements of the legal doctrine of citizenship as the modern legal framework which is based on the European and international experience and regulates the issue of an individual’s legal identity at the international level. We are convinced that the development of the citizenship doctrine is directly influenced by the ideas prevailing in society, not only in Ukraine but also worldwide (for example, recent discussions on the value of granted (octroyed) citizenship, investment-related citizenship, dual (multiple) citizenship, e-citizenship etc.) in the context of implementation of the loyalty principle. Improvements to the legal framework applicable to citizenship should primarily concern a clear and legally reasoned regulation of the grounds upon which an individual may gain citizenship (and its termination); the issue of dual (multiple) citizenship of an individual and the possibility for such citizens (bipatrids) to be elected (appointed) to public authorities; the grounds for denaturalization and renaturalization; determination of generations of the Ukrainians who are born extraterritorially and may gain the citizenship of Ukraine based on the right of blood jus sanguinis since birth.


Keywords citizenship; gaining of citizenship; dual (multiple) citizenship; right of blood; jus soli; naturalization

List of legal documents


1. Act No. 91 of 5 February 1992 (Italy) < 1992%20%28consolidated%2C%20English%29.pdf> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).

2. Code civil: Législation, Musée Criminocorpus publié le 25 juin 2014, consulté le 23 novembre 2017 < diff/pdf/> accessed 9 March 2018 (in French).

3. European convention on nationality, 1997 European Treaty Series No. 166 <https://> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).

4. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008 < ukpga/2008/22/section/33> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).

5. Mutterschaft (§ 1591) Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB) <https://www.gesetze-iminternet. de/bgb/__1591.html> accessed 9 March 2018 (in German).

6. Kryminalnyi kodeks Ukrainy [Criminal Code of Ukraine]: Zakon Ukrainy [the Law of Ukraine] vid 5 kvitnia 2001 r. № 2341-III. URL: show/2341-14 (accessed: 09.03.2018) (in Ukrainian).

7. Pro zastosuvannia sudamy okremykh norm Simeinoho kodeksu Ukrainy pry rozghliadi sprav shchodo batkivstva, materynstva ta stiahnennia alimentiv [On application by courts of certain rules of the Family Code of Ukraine in cases concerning paternity, maternity and alimony]: postanova Plenumu Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy [Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of Ukraine] vid 15 travnia 2006 r. № 3. URL: (accessed: 09.03.2018) (in Ukrainian).

8. Simeinyi kodeks Ukrainy [Family Code of Ukraine]: Zakon Ukrainy [the Law of Ukraine] vid 10 sichnia 2002 r. № 2947-III. URL: show/2947-14 (accessed: 09.03.2018) (in Ukrainian).


Cases 9. ‘

The Canevaro Case at the Hague Source’ [1912] 6(3) The American Journal of International Law 709 (in English).

10. ‘U. S. A. ex rel. Flegenheimer v. Italy’ [1959] 53(4) The American Journal of International Law 944 (in English).

11. ‘Biao v. Denmark’ [2016] ECHR <,ECHR,574473374. html> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).

12. Case C-369/90 ‘Mario Vicente Micheletti and others v Delegación del Gobierno en Cantabria’ [1992] ECR I-04239, European Court Reports 1992 I-04239. 4240–4252 (in English). 13. ‘Labassee v. France’ [2014] ECHR <{«itemid»: [«001-145180»]}> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).

14. ‘Lavisse v. France’ [1991] ECHR <{«itemid»: [«001-24590»]}> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).

15. ‘Mennesson v. France’ [2014[ ECHR <{«itemid»: [«001-145179»]}> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).

16. ‘Nottebohm Case. Liechtenstein v. Guatemala’ [ICJ 1955 Reports] 315 (in English).

17. ‘Paradiso and Campanelli v. Italy’ [2017] ECHR < emd-2012-025358-2.pdf> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).

18. ‘S.H. and Others v. Austria’ [2011] ECHR <{«docn ame»:[«S.H.»],»documentcollectionid2»:[«CASELAW»],»itemid»:[«001-107325»]}> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).

19. ‘Teitiota v Chief Executive of Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment’, [2014] NZCA 173 (in English).

20. ‘X & Y (Foreign Surrogacy)’ [2008] EWHC 3030 (Fam) <http://www.familylawweek.> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).

21. Rishennia № 33227545 Dzerzhynskoho raionnoho sudu m. Kharkova vid 16 serpnia 2013 r. u spravi № 2011/21170/12 [Ruling № 33227545 of Dzerzgynsk District Court of Kharkiv from 16 August 2013 in Case № 2011/21170/12] (accessed: 09.03.2018) (in Ukrainian).

22. Vyrok № 15625789 Berehivskoho raionnoho sudu Zakarpatskoi oblasti u spravi № 1-131/11 vid 17 travnia 2011 r. [Judgement № 15625789 of Berehovo District Court of Trancarpathian Region in Case № 1-131/11 from 17 May 2011]. URL: http://reyestr. (accessed: 09.03.2018) (in Ukrainian).


Authored books

23. Faist Thomas and Gerdes Jürgen, Dual Nationality in an Age of Mobility (Migration Policy Institute 2008) (in English).

24. Magnette Paul, Citizenship. The History of an Idea (ECPR Press 2005) (in English).

25. Kabiradzh Santayan, Problemy dvugrazhdanstva [The problems of bipatrism] (Muzhdunarodnoe finansovoe agenstvo 1996) (in Russian).


Edited books

 26. De Groot G-R, ‘Children, their right to a Nationality and Child Statelessness’ in Edwards A and Waas L E van (eds), Nationality and Statelessness under International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2014) (in English).

27. Føllesdal A, ‘Citizenship: European and Global’ in Dower N and J Williams (eds), Global Citizenship: A Critical Reader (Edinburgh University Press 2002) (in English).

28. Habermas Jü, ‘Citizenship and National Identity’ in Steenbergen B van (ed), The Condition of Citizenship (SAGE publications 1994) (in English).

29. Kymlicka W, ‘Multicultural citizenship’ in Shafir G (ed), The Citizenship Debated (University of Minnesota 1998) (in English).

30. Orgad L, ‘Naturalization’ in Shachar A and Bauböck R and Bloemraad I and Vink M (eds), The Oxford Book of Citizenship (Oxford University Press 2017) (in English).

31. Trollope A, Phineas Finn (Simon Dentith еd, Oxford World’s Classics 2011) (in English).

32. Maksymov S (holova) ta inshi, Velyka ukrainska yurydychna entsyklopediia [Great Ukrainian Law Encyclopedia], t 2: Filosofiia prava [Philosophy of Law] (Pravo 2017) (in Ukrainian).


33. Poiedynok O, ‘Nekonventsiine pravo? Pravo na hromadianstvo v praktytsi Yevropeiskoho sudu z prav liudyny ta Yevropeiskoi komisii z prav liudyny’ [‘Unconventional right? The right to citizenship in the practice of the European Court of Human Rights and the European Commission of Human Rights’] v Repetskyi V ta Hutnyk V (red), Suchasni problemy mizhnarodnoho prava. Liber Amicorum do 60-richchia prof M V Buromenskoho: monohrafiia [Current Problems of International Law. Liber Amicorum Professor Mykhaylo Buromenskiy in Honour of His 60th Birthday] (Feniks 2017) (in Ukrainian).


Journal articles

34. Flournoy Richard W, ‘Dual Nationality and Election’ [1921] XXX (6) Yale Law Journal 545 (in English).

35. Kastoryano R, ‘Transnational Participation and Citizenship: Immigrants in the European Union’ WPTC-98-12 (in English).

36. Kastoryano Riva, ‘Settlement, Transnational Communities and Citizenship’ [2000] 52(165) International Social Science Journal 307 (in English).

37. Sofinska Iryna, ‘Kontseptsiia hromadianstva: problemy zastosuvannia ta perspektyvy vdoskonalennia’ [‘Citizenship Concept: Problems of and Perspectives of Improvement’] (2006) 27 Pravova derzhava 498 (in Ukrainian).


Thesis abstracts

38. Kistiakowski Theodor, ‘Gesellschaft und Einzelwesen: eine Methodologische Untersuchung’ (Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Philosophischen Fakultät der Kaiser-Wilhelms-Uniwersität zu Strassburg, Verlag von Otto Liebmann 1899) (in German).

39. Kabiradzh Santayan, ‘Problemy dvugrazhdanstva v mezhdunarodnom prave i prakticheskie puti ikh ustraneniya’ [‘Problems of dual citizenship in international law and practical ways of their elimination’] (avtoref dis kand yurid nauk, NAN Ukrainy 1996) (in Russian).

40. Surzhynskyi Maksym, ‘Hromadianstvo Ukrainy yak konstytutsiino-pravovyi instytut’ [‘Citizenship of Ukraine as legal institute of Constitutional Law’] (avtoref dys kand yuryd nauk, In-t derzhavy i prava im V M Koretskoho NAN Ukrainy 2009) (in Ukrainian).



41. Vink M and De Groot G-R and Luk Ngo Chun, ‘MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Dataset’ (Harvard Dataverse, Desember 2015) <https://dataverse.harvard. edu/dataset.xhtml?persistentId=doi:10.7910/DVN/TTMZ08> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).

42. ‘The World’s Stateless: Children’ (Institute on Statelessness and Inclusion, January 2017) <> accessed 9 March 2018 (in English).