|Article title||Democracy, Democratization and the Phenomenon of “Electoral Revolution” of 2019 in Ukraine|
|Name of magazine||Legal journal «Law of Ukraine» (Ukrainian version)|
The article focuses on the issues of maturing and development of democracy and democratization in Ukraine and abroad. The author explores the origins and the genesis of the democracy doctrine, determines its essence and content. Hence, the conclusion is made that democracy (from Greek. Δῆμοςράτία – “power of the people”, “people’s rule”) is a historically evolved type of political and legal regime under which the only source of legitimate power in the State is the people, and the people exercise power directly and (or) through representative institutions.
It is noted that in the late XX – early XXI centuries, along with direct (elections, referendums, etc.) and representative democracy, the democracy of participation, or the so-called participatory democracy (from English participate) is becoming popular. The latter is a form of political and legal regime which provides that the entire public and State life is organized with the involvement of the public in the drafting and adoption of power and administration decisions.
The aim of the article is to highlight the origin, essence and content of democracy, to ascertain the ways and forms of democratization in the XXI century, as well as the phenomenology of the “electoral revolution” in 2019 in the context of development of new democratization courses in Ukraine.
The article emphasizes the urgent need to determine the democracy doctrine which will lay the creative foundation for the development of a well-balanced system of democracy in Ukraine, with its further normalization in the Constitution and laws of Ukraine. In this connection, the constitutional theories and doctrines of democracy and democratization widespread in the world today should be taken into account. The author gives a brief review and characterization of relevant theories (the elitist, or “realistic” theory of democracy by J. Schumpeter and N. Weber; the theory of legal (“rule of law”) or liberal democracy by A. von Hayek, L. Diamond and others; the polyarchic theory of democracy by R. Dahl; the pluralistic or competitive model of democracy; the theory of procedural or consociational democracy by A. Lijphart and others), and concludes that the theories and models of liberal democracy are in tune with Ukraine.
The article studies the relationship of such categories as “democracy” and “democratization” which characterize the static and the dynamic properties of democracy, the transition from ideas, values and principles to the practice of their implementation by an individual, civil society and the State. The author substantiates the conclusion that democratization is a system of constitutional legal relations which aim at transforming the country from an undemocratic (partly democratic) to a fully democratic political regime and at the all-round introduction of elements of democracy in society and the State, as well as at the extensive involvement of citizens and civil society institutions in the administration of the State’s affairs and implementation of local self-government.
The article explores the phenomenon of “electoral revolution” as one of the trends in democratization of political and legal regimes of Eastern European states which has been embodied in the process and in the results of the elections of the President of Ukraine and People’s Deputies of Ukraine in 2019. The author gives the definition of the concept and the essential features of the “electoral revolution” in Ukraine. In particular, the author suggests that the category of “electoral revolution” (from Latin “revolutio” – “return”, “transformation”) should be understood as the newest type of revolution which is underlain by the values of democracy, constitutionalism and respect for human rights and which provides for a radical change ensuing from and resting upon the results of elections of the old political elites being substituted for the new ones, and which also provides for the formulation of the new purposes, tasks and priorities of the State’s development in interaction with civil society.
|Keywords||democracy; direct democracy; representative democracy; participatory democracy; democratization; revolution “electoral revolution”|
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