Article title Democracy, Democratization and the Phenomenon of “Electoral Revolution” of 2019 in Ukraine

Doctor of law, Professor, Honoured Lawyer of Ukraine (Kyiv, Ukraine) ORCID ID:


Name of magazine Legal journal «Law of Ukraine» (Ukrainian version)
Issue 11/2019
Сторінки [200-224]

The article focuses on the issues of maturing and development of democracy and democratization in Ukraine and abroad. The author explores the origins and the genesis of the democracy doctrine, determines its essence and content. Hence, the conclusion is made that democracy (from Greek. Δῆμοςράτία – “power of the people”, “people’s rule”) is a historically evolved type of political and legal regime under which the only source of legitimate power in the State is the people, and the people exercise power directly and (or) through representative institutions.

It is noted that in the late XX – early XXI centuries, along with direct (elections, referendums, etc.) and representative democracy, the democracy of participation, or the so-called participatory democracy (from English participate) is becoming popular. The latter is a form of political and legal regime which provides that the entire public and State life is organized with the involvement of the public in the drafting and adoption of power and administration decisions.

The aim of the article is to highlight the origin, essence and content of democracy, to ascertain the ways and forms of democratization in the XXI century, as well as the phenomenology of the “electoral revolution” in 2019 in the context of development of new democratization courses in Ukraine.

The article emphasizes the urgent need to determine the democracy doctrine which will lay the creative foundation for the development of a well-balanced system of democracy in Ukraine, with its further normalization in the Constitution and laws of Ukraine. In this connection, the constitutional theories and doctrines of democracy and democratization widespread in the world today should be taken into account. The author gives a brief review and characterization of relevant theories (the elitist, or “realistic” theory of democracy by J. Schumpeter and N. Weber; the theory of legal (“rule of law”) or liberal democracy by A. von Hayek, L. Diamond and others; the polyarchic theory of democracy by R. Dahl; the pluralistic or competitive model of democracy; the theory of procedural or consociational democracy by A. Lijphart and others), and concludes that the theories and models of liberal democracy are in tune with Ukraine.

The article studies the relationship of such categories as “democracy” and “democratization” which characterize the static and the dynamic properties of democracy, the transition from ideas, values and principles to the practice of their implementation by an individual, civil society and the State. The author substantiates the conclusion that democratization is a system of constitutional legal relations which aim at transforming the country from an undemocratic (partly democratic) to a fully democratic political regime and at the all-round introduction of elements of democracy in society and the State, as well as at the extensive involvement of citizens and civil society institutions in the administration of the State’s affairs and implementation of local self-government.

The article explores the phenomenon of “electoral revolution” as one of the trends in democratization of political and legal regimes of Eastern European states which has been embodied in the process and in the results of the elections of the President of Ukraine and People’s Deputies of Ukraine in 2019. The author gives the definition of the concept and the essential features of the “electoral revolution” in Ukraine. In particular, the author suggests that the category of “electoral revolution” (from Latin “revolutio” – “return”, “transformation”) should be understood as the newest type of revolution which is underlain by the values of democracy, constitutionalism and respect for human rights and which provides for a radical change ensuing from and resting upon the results of elections of the old political elites being substituted for the new ones, and which also provides for the formulation of the new purposes, tasks and priorities of the State’s development in interaction with civil society.


Keywords democracy; direct democracy; representative democracy; participatory democracy; democratization; revolution “electoral revolution”



Authored books

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5. Pohorilko V ta Fedorenko V, Referendne pravo Ukrainy: navchalnyi posibnyk [Referendum Law of Ukraine: Study Guide] (Lira-K 2006) (in Ukrainian).

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12. Yanchuk A, Bezposerednie zdiisnennia vlady narodom v Ukraini (konstytutsiino-pravovyi analiz) [Direct Exercise of Power by the People of Ukraine (Constitutional and Legal Analysis)] (Drukarnia Ruta 2014) (in Ukrainian).


Edited and translated books

13. Adoratskij V, ‘Demokratija’ [‘Democracy’] v Jenciklopedija gosudarstva i prava [Encyclopedia of State and Law], t 1 (Stuchka P red, Izd-vo Kommunisticheskoj akademii 1925-1926) (in Russian).

14. Akvinskyi T, Komentari do Arystotelevoi “Polityky” [Comments on Aristotle’s “Politics”] (Kysliuk O per z lat, Osnova 2003) (in Ukrainian).

15. Aristotel’, Politika [Politics] (Zhebelev S per, Akadem proekt 2015) (in Russian).

16. Bell D, Kytaiska model. Politychna merytokratiia ta mezhi demokratii [Chinese Model. Political Meritocracy and the Limits of Democracy] (Dem’ianchuk O per z anhl, Nash format 2017) (in Ukrainian).

17. Berman Dzh, Zapadnaja tradicija prava: jepoha formirovanija [Western Tradition of Law: The Age of Formation] (per s angl, NORMA-INFRA-M 1998) (in Russian).

18. Dajmond L, ‘Opredelenie i razvitie demokratii’ [‘Definition and Development of Democracy’] v Teorija i praktika demokratii: izbrannye teksty [Theory and Practice of Democracy: Selected Texts] (per s angl, Ladomir 2006) (in Russian).

19. Dal’ R, Demokratija i ejo kritiki [Democracy and Its Critics] (per s angl, ROSSPJeN 2003) (in Russian).

20. Dal’ R, Poliarhija: uchastie i oppozicija [Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition] (Denikina S i Baranov V per s angl, Izd dom Vysshej shkoly jekonomiki 2010) (in Russian).

21. Dann D, Ne ocharovyvat’sja demokratiej [Don’t Be Fascinated by Democracy] (Kushnareva I per s angl, Izd-vo Instituta Gajdara 2016) (in Russian).

22. Ferhiuson N, Ploshchi ta vezhi. Sotsialni zv’iazky vid masoniv do Feisbuku [Squares and Towers. Social Connections from Freemasons to Facebook] (Dysa K per z anhl, Nash format 2018) (in Ukrainian).

23. Fukujama F, Konec istorii i poslednij chelovek [The End of History and the Last Man] (Levin M per s angl, AST 2015) (in Russian).

24. Goldstoun Dzh A, Revoljucija. Ochen’ kratkoe vvedenie [Revolution. A Very Brief Introduction] (Jakovlev A per s angl, Iz-vo Instituta Gajdara 2015) (in Russian).

25. Grin D, Istorija Anglii i anglijskogo naroda [History of England and the English People] (per s angl, Kuchkovo pole 2014) (in Russian).

26. Hajek F A fon, Konstitucija svobody [Constitution of Liberty] (per s angl, Novoe izdatelstvo 2018) (in Russian).

27. Hantington S, Stolknovenie civilizacij [Clash of Civilizations] (Velimeev T per s angl, AST 2014) (in Russian).

28. Harpfer K i drugie (sost i nauch red), Demokratizacija: uchebnoe posobie [Democratization: Study Guide] (per s angl, Izd dom Vysshej shkoly jekonomiki 2015) (in Russian).

29. Heffe O, Est’ li budujushhee u demokratii? O sovremennoj politike [Is there a Future for Democracy? About Modern Politics] (per s nem, Delo 2015) (in Russian).

30. Held D, Modeli demokratii [Models of Democracy] (Rudakov M per s angl, Delo 2014) (in Russian).

31. Kanfora L, Demokratija. Istorija odnoj ideologii [Democracy. History of One Ideology] (Miroljubova A per s ital, Aleksandrija 2012) (in Russian).

32. Kelzen H, Pro sutnist i tsinnist demokratii [On the Essence and Importance of Democracy] (Mokrovolskyi O per z nim, VNTL-Klasyka 2013) (in Ukrainian).

33. Krastev I, Posle Evropy [After Europe] (Nikitina A per s angl, Delo 2018) (in Russian).

34. Lejphart A, ‘Konsocional’naja demokratija’ [Consocial Democracy’] v Teorija i praktika demokratii: izbrannye teksty [Theory and Practice of Democracy: Selected Texts] (per s angl, Ladomir 2006) (in Russian).

35. Lipset S, ‘Politicheskij chelovek: social’nye osnovy politicheskoj zhizni’ [‘The Political Man: Social Foundations of Political Life’] v Teorija i praktika demokratii: izbrannye teksty [Theory and Practice of Democracy: Selected Texts] (per s angl, Ladomir 2006) (in Russian).

36. Mistsevi referendumy v Ukraini: teoretychni ta normoproektni aspekty: materialy kruhloho stolu [Local Referenda in Ukraine: Aspects of Theory and Draft Provisions: Materials of the Round Table] (Fedorenko V ta in avtor kol, SPD Moskalenko O M 2009) (in Ukrainian).

37. Naim M, Zanepad vlady: vid vladnykh kabinetiv do poliv bytvy y tserkov, a potim i do derzhavy, abo chomu sohodni buty pry vladi oznachaie zovsim inshe, nizh kolys [The Decline of Power: From Government’s Offices to Battlefields and Churches, and Further to the State, or Why Being in the Government Today Means Something Very Different Than Earlier] (Dem’ianchuk O per z anhl, Fors Ukraina 2017) (in Ukrainian).

38. Orteha-i-Haset Kh, Vybrani tvory [Selected Works] (per z isp, Osnovy 1994) (in Ukrainian).

39. Russo Zh-Zh, Traktaty [Treatises] (perevod s francuzskogo, Alekseev-Popov V i dr sost, Nauka 1969) (in Russian).

40. Surkov V, ‘Nacionalizacija budushhego (paragrafy pro suverennuju demokratiju)’ [‘Nationalization of the Future (Paragraphs about Sovereign Democracy)’] v Suverennaja demokratija. Ot idei – k doktrine [Sovereign Democracy. From Idea to Doctrine] (Evropa 2006) (in Russian).

41. Tokvil A. de, Pro demokratiiu v Amerytsi [On Democracy in America] (Filipchuk H ta Moskalenko M per z frants, Vsesvit 1999) (in Ukrainian).

42. Toledo A, Social’no splochennoe obshhestvo. Global’nye perspektivy Latinskoj Ameriki [Socially Cohesive Society. Latin America’s Global Prospects] (Gus’kov A per s angl, Izd dom vyssh shkol jekonom 2019) (in Russian).

43. Urbinati N, Iskazhennaja demokratija. Mnenie, istina i narod [Distorted Democracy. Opinion, the Truth and the People] (Kralechkin D per s angl, Izd-vo Instituta Gajdara 2016) (in Russian).

44. Zakarija F, Budushhee svobody: neliberal’naja demokratija v SShA i za ih predelami [The Future of Liberty: Non-Liberal Democracy in the US and Abroad] (Inozemcev V per s angl, Ladomir 2004) (in Russian).


Journal articles

45. Fedorenko V, ‘Konstytutsionalizm i revoliutsii’ [‘Constitutionalism and Revolutions’] (2018) 4 Pravo Ukrainy 64-92 (in Ukrainian).

46. Motsok V, ‘“Elektoralna revoliutsiia” v amerykanskii politytsi spryiannia demokratii dlia Skhidnoi Yevropy’ [‘“Electoral Revolution” in American Democracy Promotion Policy for Eastern Europe’] (2013) 25-6 Istoryko-politychni problemy suchasnoho svitu 97-102 (in Ukrainian).

47. Nesterovych V, ‘Konstytutsiino-pravova kharakterystyka khronolohii provedennia vyboriv u suchasnii Ukraini’ [‘Constitutional and Legal Characterization of the Chronology of Elections in Modern Ukraine’] [2019] 1(3) Ekspert: paradyhmy yurydychnykh nauk i derzhavnoho upravlinnia 121-43 (in Ukrainian).



48. Zhadan S, ‘V Ukraini vidbulasia elektoralna revoliutsiia, ale naslidky yii nevidomi’ [‘There Has Been an Electoral Revolution in Ukraine, but Its Consequences are Unknown’] (Ukrinform, 05.08.2019) <> (accessed: 03.10.2019) (in Ukrainian).

49. Omelianiuk M, ‘Elektoralna revoliutsiia’ [‘Electoral Revolution’] ( <> (accessed: 03.10.2019) (in Ukrainian).