|Article title||Cross-Cutting and Self-Standing Concepts of Criminal Law of Ukraine|
Doctor of Law, Professor, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine, Professor Lviv State University of Internal Affairs, Ukrainian Catholic University (Lviv, Ukraine) ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4276-037X Researcher ID: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/D-6589-2019 navrotskyi.vo.@gmail.com
|Name of magazine||Legal journal «Law of Ukraine» (Ukrainian version)|
Consistency of terms is one of the essential quality criteria of law and the pillar of appropriate law application practice, a prerequisite for the rule of law and the supremacy of legal order. From this perspective, the current Criminal Code of Ukraine, on the one part, has many efficient solutions ensuring observance of the rule according to which one term denotes the same concepts (and it is proposed to refer to such concepts and terms as cross-cutting), and on the other part, it contains numerous inconsistencies when this rule is disregarded and the same terms denote the concepts of different meaning and scope (it is proposed to refer to them as self-standing).
The purpose of the article is to analyze why Ukrainian criminal law has encountered the situation when the requirement for consistency of terminology is not complied with, and to find out what its reason is, and also to show real examples of how legislation, law application practice and criminal law theory of Ukraine are related to the existence thereof. The study of this problem should encourage specific proposals for ensuring terminological consistency in criminal law. The author notes the positive role of cross-cutting criminal law concepts and mentions their functions in criminal law. Such concepts, in particular, confirm the continuity (succession, consistency, coherence) of legislation, law application practice, and the theory of criminal law; furthermore, they are indicative of the stability of a legal system; they are an indicator of the quality of legislation; demonstrate the systematicity of criminal law, are a prerequisite for systematic interpretation of criminal law; ensure legal certainty in law application; and besides, they simplify the study of criminal law.
The author highlights the inappropriateness of the situation when the rule under which the same concepts are designated by the same terms is disregarded and this gives rise to self-standing criminal law concepts. The author notes that this situation differs from the one emerging when the so-called autonomous concepts are formed in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.
The author emphasizes that it is possible to speak about existence of self-standing concepts only in the context of their comparison with the crosscutting ones. The author concludes that concepts can become self-standing at least for the following three reasons: 1) due to actions of the legislator; 2) due to the position of practice; 3) as a result of theoretical research. Anyway, this is the consequence of voluntarism and improper attention to the meaning of relevant cross-cutting concepts and this is confirmed by the analysis of specific examples. The article formulates proposals intended to prevent the emergence of self-standing concepts in criminal law of Ukraine, in particular, by creating a glossary which should be exclusively used to form articles of criminal law.
|Keywords||criminal law; terminology; array of concepts; cross-cutting; self-standing|
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