Name of magazine Legal journal «Law of Ukraine» (Ukrainian version)
Issue 1/2018
Сторінки [123-136]

Given that it is quite possible that in the near future artificial intelligence equal to or exceeding human intelligence may be created, there are all the grounds to recognize the “e-person (personality)” as the subject of relations under criminal law and the subject (perpetrator) of a crime. The purpose of this article is to study the characteristics of artificial intelligence in the context of criminal law and the relevant doctrine, this being a promising task for this branch with a potential to facilitate the establishment and development of systemic relations with other related areas as a timely response to the need of preventing socially dangerous challenges of the present day and the future. The status “e-person (personality)” given to artificial intelligence as the subject of legal relations should not encounter any resistance from the perspective of legal doctrine and at the legislative level, in the same manner as this issue has been stabilized with regard to legal entities. Therefore, it is quite predictable that in the Ukrainian Criminal Code the section No. XIV-2 has been introduced under the provisional title “Measures at criminal law in respect of electronic persons (personalities)”. The features of artificial intelligence as the subject of a crime de lege ferenda may be as follows: 1) e-person (personality); 2) the ability to understand own actions (or omissions) and control them at the time of committing a crime. At the same time, it may be appropriate and justified to recognize artificial intelligence as the subject of relations under criminal law and the subject (perpetrator) of a crime only subject to a thorough analysis of proposals for a complete readjustment of the entire system, and subject to their harmonization at the level of branch and inter-branch relations, in the inseparable unity with the fundamental constitutional principles and international commitments of Ukraine. Besides, an important aspect is the task of protecting the rights of a victim who uses artificial intelligence- based implants, and combating criminal activities of individuals who may be more socially dangerous due to the use of similar implants based on up-todate technologies.


Keywords artificial intelligence; subject of relations under criminal law; subject (perpetrator) of a crime; e-person (personality);

List of legal documents 

1. Kryminalnyi kodeks Ukrainy [Criminal Code of Ukraine]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 5 kvitnia 2001 r. № 2341-III. URL: show/2341-14 (accessed: 19.01.2018) (in Ukrainian). 

2. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Cudu Ukrainy vid 22 hrudnia 2010 r. № 1-34/2010 u spravi № 23-rp/2010 za konstytutsiinym zvernenniam hromadianyna Bahinskoho Artema Oleksandrovycha shchodo ofitsiinoho tlumachennia polozhen chastyny pershoi statti 14-1 Kodeksu Ukrainy pro administratyvni pravoporushennia (sprava pro administratyvnu vidpovidalnist u sferi zabezpechennia bezpeky dorozhnoho rukhu) [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of Citizen Baginskyi Artem Oleksandrovych Concerning Official Interpretation of Provisions of Part One, Article 14-1 of the Ukrainian Code of Administrative Offences (Case on Administrative Liability Relating to Road Traffic Safety)]. URL: (accessed: 19.01.2018) (in Ukrainian). 

Authored books 
3. Barrat Dzh, Poslednee izobretenie chelovechestva iskusstvennyj intellekt i konec jery Homo sapiens [Our Final Invention Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era] (Al’pina non-fikshn 2015) (in Russian). 

4. Chechetka S A, ‘Materially Engineered Artificial Pollinators’ (2017) 2(2) Chem 224 accessed 19 January 2018 (in English). 
5. Hedberg S R, ‘Dart Revolutionizing Logistics Planning’ (2002) 17 (3) IEEE Intelligent Systems 81 accessed 19 January 2018 (in English). 
6. Oleksandr Radutnyi, ‘Shtuchnyi intelekt yak subiekt zlochynu’ [‘Artificial Intelligence as the Subject of a Crime’] (2017) 4 Informatsiia i pravo 106 (in Ukrainian). 

7. Allen G C, ‘Project Maven brings AI to the fight against ISIS’ (Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 21 December 2017) accessed 18 January 2018 (in English). 
8. Ernst D, ‘Real-life Jason Bourne: SEALs test ‘cognitive enhancement’’ (The Washington Times, 3 April 2017) accessed 19 January 2018 (in English). 
9. Executive Summary of World Robotics 2011 Industrial Robots & World Robotics 2011 Service Robots (SlideShare, 3 December 2011) accessed 25 December 2017 (in English). 
10. Fenner R, ‘Alibaba’s AI Outguns Humans in Reading Test’ (Bloomberg Technology, 15 January 2018) accessed 17 January 2018 (in English). 
11. ‘Findings Regarding the Market Events of May 6, 2010 Report of the Staffs of the CFTC and SEC to the Joint Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues’ (U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission accessed 19 January 2018 (in English). 
12. ‘How soon will computers replace The Economist’s writers?’ (The Economist, 19 December 2017) accessed 21 January 2018 (in English). 
13. ‘Indija priznala del’finov lichnostjami i zapretila del’finarii’ [India Recognized that Dolphins are Persons and Prohibited Dolphinariums] (Econet) accessed 19 Janua ry 2018 (in Russian). 
14. Knapton S, ‘Artificially intelligent ‘judge’ developed which can predict court verdicts with 79 per cent accuracy’ (The Telegraph, 24 October 2016) accessed 15 December 2017 (in English). 
15. Pellerin C, ‘Project Maven to Deploy Computer Algorithms to War Zone by Year’s End’ (U.S. Department of Defense) accessed 18 January 2018 (in English). 
16. ‘Resolution with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics (2015/2103(INL))’ (European Parliament, 16 February 2017) accessed 15 December 2017 (in English). 

17. Kozul’ko G, ‘Illjuzija vosprijatija: ogranichennost’ zrenija, sluha i drugih organov chuvstv cheloveka’ [‘Illusory Perception: Impaired Vision, Hearing and other Impaired Functions of Human Sensory Organs’] (LiveJournal, 23 Ijul’ 2012) accessed 19 January 2018 (in Russian).