|Article title||Introduction of Electronic Administrative Judicial Procedure in Ukraine: Innovations and Prospects|
|Name of magazine||Legal journal «Law of Ukraine» (Ukrainian version)|
Recently, introduction of e-justice has become a central topic of scientific debate. Currently, the main question is whether e-justice will be able to increase the level of human rights protection, especially in administrative cases, with one of the parties to a legal dispute being an individual opposed by a subject vested with power? Generally, information technologies allow creating new forms of organization of the functioning and interaction of public authorities with society, and also allow implementing innovative solutions for legal regulation and organization of relations at public law. The purpose of this article is to find out, firstly, the real possibilities which are offered by innovative legal provisions on electronic administrative judicial procedure to participants of administrative process, and secondly, to ascertain what the next steps of public authorities should be, including the legislator, in order to ensure that the provisions on the introduction of electronic administrative judicial procedure are implemented. The function of the Unified Judicial Information and Telecommunication System has been consolidated at the legislative level; this system should become the basis for the introduction of all subsequent elements of the electronic administrative judicial procedure. It is the first time when the provision has been entrenched stating that a court of law shall consider the case based on case materials in electronic form. Participants to administrative process have been granted the opportunity to submit evidence in electronic form and use an electronic digital signature. Furthermore, documents may be submitted to a court and proceedings may be conducted in electronic form using the Unified Judicial Information and Telecommunication System. However, there is still controversy over the legal regulatory framework for the option of legal recourse to an administrative court by filing an electronic claim. Article 160 of the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine expressly provides that the statement of claim shall be submitted in a written form. Although the written form does not actually preclude making of an electronic document, the fact that the legislator has not expressly provided for the possibility of legal recourse by filing of an electronic administrative claim should be regarded only as the indication that public authorities are not ready for real reforms of judicial processes by using information technologies. Judicial processes in particular and the system in general are probably the most conservative of all public institutions. In the course of society development, the basic elements of judicial process have undergone very insignificant changes. In this context, the modern legal system should set the objectives of making the use of information technologies as safe as possible for human rights, and also of using the potential of the digital world to make complex legal procedures less complicated. Thus, changes made to the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine have actually brought along the introduction of separate e-justice elements into the administrative process. However, no fundamental changes ensued, since the legislative level still keeps the provisions which until now were regulated by acts of subordinate legislation. The next step should lie in establishing the legal framework for the functioning of the Unified Judicial Information and Telecommunication System, in enhancing the personal data protection and increasing the liability for illegal interference with the operation of e-justice systems.
|Keywords||e-court; electronic administrative judicial procedure; electronic claim; electronic evidence|
List of legal documents
1. Kodeks postępowania cywilnego: Ustawa z dnia 17 listopada 1964 r. URL: http://www.lex.pl/akt-prawny/-/akt/dz-u-1964-43-296-u (accessed: 15.02.2018) (in Polish).
2. Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers (2001)3 adopted on 28 February 2001 at the 743rd meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies to member states on the delivery of court and other legal services to the citizen through the use of new technologies. URL: https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectID=09000016805e2aa7 (accessed: 12.12.2017) (in English).
3. Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers CM/Rec(2009)1 adopted on 18 February 2009 at the 1049th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies to member states on electronic democracy (e-democracy). URL: http://www.coe.int/t/dgap/democracy/ Activities/GGIS/CAHDE/Default_en.asp (accessed: 12.12.2017) (in English).
4. Kodeks administratyvnoho sudochynstva Ukrainy [The Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 6 lypnia 2005 r. № 2747-IV (v redak cii Zakonu Ukrainy [As Amended by the Law of Ukraine] vid 3 zhovtnia 2017 r. № 2147-VIII. Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy. 2017. № 48. St. 436) (in Ukrainian).
5. Pro elektronni dokumenty i elektronnyj dokumentoobih [On Electronic Documents and Electronic Document Management]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 22 travnia 2003 r. № 851-IV. Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy. 2003. № 36. St. 275 (in Ukrainian).
6. Pro elektronnyi cyfrovyi pidpys [On Electronic Digital Signature]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 22 travnia 2003 r. № 852-IV. Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy. 2003. № 36. St. 276 (in Ukrainian).
7. Pro realizaciiu proektu shhodo obminu elektronnymy dokumentamy mizh sudom ta uchasnykamy sudovoho procesu [On Implementation of the Project for Electronic Documents Exchange between the Court and Court Process Participants]: nakaz Derzhavnoii sudovoi administracii Ukrainy [Order of the State Judicial Administration of Ukraine] vid 31 travnia 2013 r. № 72. URL: http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/ link1/SA13013.html (accessed: 12.12.2017) (in Ukrainian).
8. Pro vnesennia zmin do Hospodarskoho procesualnoho kodeksu Ukrainy, Cyvilnoho procesualnoho kodeksu Ukrainy, Kodeksu administratyvnoho sudochynstva Ukrainy ta inshykh zakonodavchykh aktiv [On Amendments to the Economic Procedure Code of Ukraine, the Civil Procedure Code of Ukraine, the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine and other Acts of Legislation]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 3 zhovtnia 2017 r. № 2147-VIII. Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy. 2017. № 48. St. 436 (in Ukrainian).
9. Pro zatverdzhennia Tymchasovoho rehlamentu nadsylannia sudom elektronnykh dokumentiv uchasnykam sudovoho procesu, kryminalnoho provadzhennia [On Ap pro val of the Temporary Rules for Sending by the Court of Electronic Documents to Participants of Court Process, Criminal Proceedings]: nakaz Derzhavnoyi sudovoi administracii Ukrainy [Order of the State Judicial Administration of Ukraine] vid 7 lystopada 2016 r. № 227. URL: https://dsa.court.gov.ua/dsa/inshe/14/227 (accessed: 13.12.2017) (in Ukrainian).
10. Bryntsev O, “Elektronni sudy” v Ukraini Dosvid ta perspektyvy [“Electronic Courts” in Ukraine Experience and Prospects] (Pravo 2016) (in Ukrainian). Edited books
11. Bryncev О, ‘Elektronnyi sud – suchasnyi stan ta shliakhy vdoskonalennia’ [‘E-Court – Modern State and Ways of Improvement’] v Hlibko S, Yefremova K (red), Pravove rehuliuvannia vidnosyn u merezhi Internet: monohrafiia [Legal Regulation of Relations on the Internet: Monograph] (Pravo 2016) (in Ukrainian). Journal Articles
12. Bilous V, ‘Innovaciini napriamky informatyzaciii sudochynstva’ [‘Innovative Areas of Informatization of Court Proceedings’] (2011) 11 Teoriia ta praktyka sudovoii ekspertyzy i kryminalistyky 97 (in Ukrainian). Websites
13. ‘Sądy w Internecie’ (Ministerstwo Sprawiedliwości Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) <https://www.ms.gov.pl/pl/sady-w-internecie/> accessed 15 December 2017 (in Polish).
14. ‘Informaciya shhodo roboty “Elektronnoho sudu”’ [Information on the E-Court Operation] (Sudova vlada Ukrayiny) <https://court.gov.ua/reyestri-ta-sistemi/ecourt/> accessed 15 December 2017 (in Ukrainian).
15. Kuibida R, ‘Sudy robliat chesnymy chesni suddi, a ne zakony pro sudovu systemu’ [‘The Courts are Made Fair by Honest Judges and Not by the Laws on the Court System’] (Centr polityko-pravovykh reform, 10 Lystopad 2017) <http://pravo.org.ua/ua/ news/20872410-sudi-roblyat-chesnimi-chesni-suddi,-a-ne-zakoni-pro-sudovu-sistemu,-ekspert-roman-kuybida> accessed 14 December 2017 (in Ukrainian).