Article title Limitation of the Right of Judges to Judicial Protection
Authors
Name of magazine Legal journal «Law of Ukraine» (Ukrainian version)
Issue 2/2018
Сторінки [118-135]
DOI https://doi.org/10.33498/louu-2018-02-118
Annotation

The Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine as in force on December 15, 2017 (hereinafter – CAJP of Ukraine) provides that the Supreme Court is the sole cassation authority in Ukraine; the Code also introduced a new procedure to be followed by this Court when considering cases. According to article 266 of CAJP of Ukraine, disputes relating to appeals against acts, actions or omissions of the High Council of Justice are referred to the jurisdiction of the new Supreme Court. However, an assessment of certain provisions of the Laws of Ukraine “On the Organization of Courts and the Status of Judges” and “On the High Council of Justice” entails a range of legal issues, in particular: should the Supreme Court apply the limitations established by these pieces of legislation, or should it waive the above limitations and commence proceedings in administrative cases in respect of appealing against acts, actions or omissions of the High Council of Justice? The purpose of this article is to establish whether there is due conformity between provisions of the Constitution of Ukraine and fundamental principles of law and the grounds for filing court appeals against decisions of the High Council of Justice by which a judge is dismissed from office due to serious disciplinary misconduct, gross or systematic disregard of duties which is incompatible with the judge’s status or which revealed his/her inaptitude to the position held. The grammatical interpretation of part 2, article 57 of the Law of Ukraine “On the High Council of Justice” allows asserting that the list of grounds for appeal is exhaustive. Actually, this legal regulation prohibits to use such a remedy of right protection as legal action in administrative court due to the assumption made by the High Council of Justice, in the opinion of the person concerned, that there are other violations of law that illegally restrict his/her rights. With due regard for article 23 of the Ukrainian Constitution, the right to judicial protection (particularly, access to court) may be limited in cases where this is necessary to prevent a violation of the rights and freedoms of other persons, and also to perform the duties which an individual has to society. Limitation of the constitutional right to judicial protection should be applied with due regard for the rule of law principle, in particular, its components such as proportionality between the interests of an individual and society, as well as fairness, reasonableness, consistency of law, and etc. Given that the provisions of the Ukrainian Constitution and procedural laws are designated to regulate judicial protection in the situation when society trusts judges, we may arrive at the conclusion that limitation of the right of judges to judicial protection does not contradict the requirement for fairness, since there is a low level of trust to judges appointed to positions in the situation of socio-political changes of November 2013 – February 2014. Consequently, the limitations of the rights of judges to judicial protection imposed by the Laws of Ukraine “On the Organization of Courts and the Status of Judges” and “On the High Council of Justice” were consistent with the requirements of proportionality between the interests of an individual and society, fairness and reasonableness under certain political and legal circumstances. Limitations under the Law of Ukraine “On the High Council of Justice” should be temporary. If they are kept in force after the new Supreme Court starts its procedural activities, this would contradict the rule of law principle, in particular, the requirements for fairness and reasonableness. Therefore, having received respective claims, the Supreme Court should abandon the use of the above-mentioned limitations and commence proceedings in administrative cases.

 

Keywords judge; dismissal of a judge; appeal against a decision of the High Council of Justice; judicial protection of judges; the rule of law principle; proportionality between the interests of an individual and society
References

List of legal documents

 

Legislation

1. Kodeks administratyvnoho sudochynstva Ukrainy [The Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 6 lypnia 2005 r. № 2747-IV. URL: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2747-15/ed20170803 (accessed: 03.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

2. Kodeks administratyvnoho sudochynstva Ukrainy [The Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 6 lypnia 2005 r. № 2747-IV (v redaktsii Zakonu Ukrainy [As Amended by the Law of Ukraine] vid 3 zhovtnia 2017 r. № 2147-VIII). URL: http://zakon0.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2747-15 (accessed: 03.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

3. Konstytutsiia Ukrainy [Constitution of Ukraine]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 28 chervnia 1996 r. № 254k/96-VR. URL: http://zakon0.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/ 254%D0%BA/96-%D0%B2%D1%80 (accessed: 04.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

4. Pro sudoustrii i status suddiv [On the Organization of Courts and the Status of Judges]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 2 chervnia 2016 r. № 1402-VIII. http://zakon0. rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1402-19 (accessed: 03.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

5. Pro sudoustrii i status suddiv [On the Organization of Courts and the Status of Judges]: proekt Zakonu Ukrainy [Draft Law of Ukraine] vid 30 travnia 2016 r., reiestratsiinyi № 4734. URL: http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb2/webproc4_1?pf3511=59259 (acces sed: 06.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

6. Pro vnesennia zmin do Hospodarskoho protsesualnoho kodeksu Ukrainy, Tsyvilnoho protsesualnoho kodeksu Ukrainy, Kodeksu administratyvnoho sudochynstva Ukrainy ta inshykh zakonodavchykh aktiv [On Amendments to the Economic Procedure Code of Ukraine, the Civil Procedure Code of Ukraine, the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine and other Acts of Legislation]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 3 zhovtnia 2017 r. № 2147-VIII. URL: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2147-19 (accessed: 03.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

7. Pro vykonavche provadzhennia [On the Enforcement Proceedings]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 2 chervnia 2016 r. № 1404-VIII. URL: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/1404-19 (accessed: 07.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

8. Pro Vyshchu radu pravosuddia [On the High Council of Justice]: proekt Zakonu Ukrainy [Draft Law of Ukraine] vid 23 veresnia 2016 r., reiestratsiinyi № 5180. URL: http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb2/webproc4_1?pf3511=60102 (accessed: 06.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

9. Pro Vyshchu radu pravosuddia [On the High Council of Justice]: Zakon Ukrainy [Law of Ukraine] vid 21 hrudnia 2016 r. № 1798-VIII. URL: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/ show/1798-19 (accessed: 03.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

 

 

Cases

10. Postanova Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy [Resolution of the Supreme Court of Ukraine] vid 24 chervnia 2014 r. u spravi № 21-231a14. URL: http://reyestr.court.gov.ua/ Review/39783861 (accessed: 04.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

11. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy vid 7 travnia 2002 r. № 8-rp/2002 u spravi za konstytutsiinym podanniam Prezydenta Ukrainy shchodo ofitsiinoho tlumachennia polozhen chastyn druhoi, tretoi statti 124 Konstytutsii Ukrainy (sprava shchodo pidvidomchosti aktiv pro pryznachennia abo zvilnennia posadovykh osib) [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine Dated May 7, 2002, № 8-rp/2002 in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of the President of Ukraine Concerning Official Interpretation of Provisions of Parts Two, Three of Article 124 of the Constitution of Ukraine (Case of Jurisdiction of Acts on Appointment or Dismissal of Officials)] (sprava № 1-1/2002). URL: http://zakon0.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/v008p710-02 (accessed: 04.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

12. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy vid 2 lystopada 2004 r. № 15-rp/2004 u spravi za konstytutsiinym podanniam Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy shchodo vidpovidnosti Konstytutsii Ukrainy (konstytutsiinosti) polozhen statti 69 Kryminalnoho kodeksu Ukrainy (sprava pro pryznachennia sudom bilsh m’iakoho pokarannia) [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine Dated November 2, 2004 № 15-rp/2004 in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of the Supreme Court of Ukraine Concerning the Compliance with the Constitution of Ukraine (Constitutionality) of Provisions of Article 69 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine (Case of a More Lenient Sentence Imposed by the Court)] (sprava № 1-33/2004). URL: http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/ v015p710-04 (accessed: 04.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

13. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy vid 12 chervnia 2007 r. № 2-rp/2007 u spravi za konstytutsiinym podanniam 70 narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy shchodo vidpovidnosti Konstytutsii Ukrainy (konstytutsiinosti) polozhen chastyny pershoi statti 10, punktu 3 chastyny druhoi, chastyn p’iatoi, shostoi statti 11, statti 15, chastyny pershoi statti 17, statti 24, punktu 3 rozdilu VI “Zakliuchni polozhennia” Zakonu Ukrainy “Pro politychni partii v Ukraini” (sprava pro utvorennia politychnykh partii v Ukraini) [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine Dated June 12, 2007 № 2-rp/2007 in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of 70 People’s Deputies of Ukraine Concerning the Compliance with the Constitution of Ukraine (Constitutionality) of Provisions of Part One of Article 10, Clause 3 of Part Two, Parts Five, Six of Article 11, Article 15, Article 17, Article 24, Clause 3 of Section VI “Final Provisions” of the Law of Ukraine “On Political Parties in Ukraine” (Case of Forming of Political Parties in Ukraine)] (sprava № 1-2/2007). URL: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/ v002p710-07 (accessed: 04.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

14. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy vid 9 lypnia 2007 r. № 6-rp/2007 u spravi za konstytutsiinym podanniam 46 narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy shchodo vidpovidnosti Konstytutsii Ukrainy (konstytutsiinosti) polozhen statei 29, 36, chastyny druhoi statti 56, chastyny druhoi statti 62, chastyny pershoi statti 66, punktiv 7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 23, 29, 30, 39, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46 statti 71, statei 98, 101, 103, 111 Zakonu Ukrainy “Pro Derzhavnyi biudzhet Ukrainy na 2007 rik” (sprava pro sotsialni harantii hromadian) [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine Dated July 9, 2007 № 6-rp/2007 in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of 46 People’s Deputies of Ukraine Concerning the Compliance with the Constitution of Ukraine (Constitutionality) of Provisions of Articles 29, 36, Part Two of Article 56, Part Two of Article 62, Part One of Article 66, Clauses 7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 23, 29, 30, 39, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46 of Article 71, Articles 98, 101, 103, 111 of the Law of Ukraine “On the State Budget of Ukraine for Year 2007” (Case of Social Guarantees of Citizens)] (sprava № 1-29/2007). URL: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/v0a6p710-07 (accessed: 04.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

15. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy vid 9 veresnia 2010 r. № 19-rp/2010 u spravi za konstytutsiinym podanniam Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy shchodo vidpovidnosti Konstytutsii Ukrainy (konstytutsiinosti) polozhen Zakonu Ukrainy “Pro vnesennia zmin do deiakykh zakonodavchykh aktiv Ukrainy shchodo pidvidomchosti sprav, pov’iazanykh iz sotsialnymy vyplatamy” [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine Dated September 9, 2010 № 19-rp/2010 in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of the Supreme Court of Ukraine Concerning the Compliance with the Constitution of Ukraine (Constitutionality) of Provisions of the Law of Ukraine “On Amendments to Some Legislative Acts of Ukraine Concerning Jurisdiction of Cases Related to Social Benefits”] (sprava № 1-40/2010). URL: http://zakon0.rada.gov. ua/laws/show/v019p710-10 (accessed: 05.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

16. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy vid 6 zhovtnia 2010 r. № 21-rp/2010 u spravi za konstytutsiinym podanniam Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy shchodo vidpovidnosti Konstytutsii Ukrainy (konstytutsiinosti) polozhen zakoniv Ukrainy “Pro zasady zapobihannia ta protydii koruptsii”, “Pro vidpovidalnist yurydychnykh osib za vchynennia koruptsiinykh pravoporushen”, “Pro vnesennia zmin do deiakykh zakonodavchykh aktiv Ukrainy shchodo vidpovidalnosti za koruptsiini pravoporushennia” (sprava pro koruptsiini pravoporushennia ta vvedennia v diiu antykoruptsiinykh zakoniv) [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine Dated October 6, 2010 № 21-rp/2010 in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of the Supreme Court of Ukraine Concerning the Compliance with the Constitution of Ukraine (Constitutionality) of Provisions of the Laws of Ukraine “On the Foundations of Corruption Prevention and Combating”, “On Liability of Legal Entities for Committing Corruption Offenses”, “On Amendments to Some Legislative Acts of Ukraine Regarding Liability for Corruption Offences” (Case of Corruption Offences and Enactment of Anti-Corruption Laws)] (sprava № 1-27/2010). URL: http://zakon0. rada.gov.ua/laws/show/v021p710-10 (accessed: 04.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

17. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy vid 26 sichnia 2011 r. № 1-rp/2011 u spravi za konstytutsiinym podanniam Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy ta za konstytutsiinym zvernenniam hromadianyna Savchuka Mykoly Mykolaiovycha pro ofitsiine tlumachennia polozhen Kryminalnoho kodeksu Ukrainy 1960 roku iz zminamy, vnesenymy Zakonom Ukrainy “Pro vnesennia zmin do Kryminalnoho, Kryminalnoprotsesualnoho ta Vypravno-trudovoho kodeksiv Ukrainy” vid 22 liutoho 2000 roku № 1483-III, shchodo yikh dii v chasi u vzaiemozv’iazku iz polozhenniamy statti 8, chastyny pershoi statti 58, punktu 22 chastyny pershoi statti 92, chastyny druhoi statti 152, punktu 1 rozdilu XV “Perekhidni polozhennia” Konstytutsii Ukrainy, statti 73 Zakonu Ukrainy “Pro Konstytutsiinyi Sud Ukrainy”, chastyny druhoi statti 4, chastyn pershoi, tretoi, chetvertoi statti 5, chastyny tretoi statti 74 Kryminalnoho kodeksu Ukrainy 2001 roku (sprava pro zaminu smertnoi kary dovichnym pozbavlenniam voli) [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine dated January 26, 2011 № 1-rp/2011 in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of the Supreme Court of Ukraine and the Constitutional Appeal of Citizen Savchuk Mykola Mykolaiovych Concerning Official Interpretation of Provisions of the Criminal Code of Ukraine of 1960, as Amended by the Law of Ukraine “On Amendments to the Criminal, Criminal Procedure and Correctional Labor Codes of Ukraine” Dated February 22, 2000 № 1483-III Regarding the Time of Their Application in Conjunction with Provisions of Article 8, Part One of Article 58, Clause 22, Part One of Article 92, Part Two of Article 152, Clause 1 of Section XV “Transitional Provisions” of the Constitution of Ukraine, Article 73 of the Law of Ukraine “On the Constitutional Court of Ukraine”, Part Two of Article 4, Parts One, Three, Four of Article 5, Part Three of Article 74 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine 2001 (Case of Replacing Death Penalty with Life Imprisonment)] (sprava № 1-5/2011). URL: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/ v001p710-11 (accessed: 05.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

18. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy vid 13 hrudnia 2011 r. № 17-rp/2011 spravi za konstytutsiinym podanniam 54 narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy shchodo vidpovidnosti Konstytutsii Ukrainy (konstytutsiinosti) okremykh polozhen Zakonu Ukrainy “Pro sudoustrii i status suddiv”, Kryminalno-protsesualnoho kodeksu Ukrainy, Hospodarskoho protsesualnoho kodeksu Ukrainy, Tsyvilnoho protsesualnoho kodeksu Ukrainy, Kodeksu administratyvnoho sudochynstva Ukrainy [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine Dated December 13, 2011. № 17-rp/2011 in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of 54 People’s Deputies of Ukraine Concerning the Compliance with the Constitution of Ukraine (Constitutionality) of Separate Provisions of the Law of Ukraine “On the Organization of Courts and the Status of Judges”, the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine, the Economic Procedure Code of Ukraine, the Civil Procedure Code of Ukraine, the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine] (sprava № 1-9/2011). URL: http://zakon0.rada.gov.ua/laws/ show/v017p710-11 (accessed: 05.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

19. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy vid 20 sichnia 2012 r. № 2-rp/2012 u spravi za konstytutsiinym podanniam Zhashkivskoi raionnoi rady Cherkaskoi oblasti shchodo ofitsiinoho tlumachennia polozhen chastyn pershoi, druhoi statti 32, chastyn druhoi, tretoi statti 34 Konstytutsii Ukrainy [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine Dated January 20, 2012. № 2-rp/2012 in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of Zhashkivskyi District Council of Cherkasy Oblast Concerning Official Interpretation of Provisions of Parts One, Two of Article 32, Parts Two, Three of Article 34 of the Constitution of Ukraine] (sprava № 1-9/2012). URL: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/ show/v002p710-12 (accessed: 04.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

20. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy vid 29 serpnia 2012 r. № 16-rp/2012 u spravi za konstytutsiinymy podanniamy 49 narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy shchodo vidpovidnosti Konstytutsii Ukrainy (konstytutsiinosti) polozhen chastyny chetvertoi statti 18, statti 1711, chastyny pershoi statti 180 Kodeksu administratyvnoho sudochynstva Ukrainy, 50 narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy shchodo vidpovidnosti Konstytutsii Ukrainy (konstytutsiinosti) polozhen chastyny chetvertoi statti 18, chastyn druhoi, tretoi, p’iatoi statti 1711, chastyn druhoi, shostoi statti 1831 Kodeksu administratyvnoho sudochynstva Ukrainy ta 54 narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy shchodo vidpovidnosti Konstytutsii Ukrainy (konstytutsiinosti) polozhen chastyny pershoi statti 89 Zakonu Ukrainy “Pro sudoustrii i status suddiv”, chastyny chetvertoi statti 18, statti 1711 Kodeksu administratyvnoho sudochynstva Ukrainy (sprava pro pidsudnist okremykh katehorii administratyvnykh sprav) [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine Dated August 29, 2012 № 16-rp/2012 in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of 49 People’s Deputies of Ukraine Concerning the Compliance with the Constitution of Ukraine (Constitutionality) of Provisions of Part Four of Article 18, Article 1711, Part One of Article 180 of the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine, 50 People’s Deputies of Ukraine Concerning the Compliance with the Constitution of Ukraine (Constitutionality) of Provisions of Part Four of Article 18, Parts Two, Three, Five of Article 1711, Parts Two, Six of Article 1831 of the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine and of 54 People’s Deputies of Ukraine Concerning the Compliance with the Constitution of Ukraine (Constitutionality) of Provisions of Part One of Article 89 of the Law of Ukraine “On the Organization of Courts and the Status of Judges”, Part Four of Article 18, Article 1711 of the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure of Ukraine (Case of Jurisdiction of Certain Categories of Administrative Cases)] (sprava № 1-1/2012). URL: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/v016p710-12 (accessed: 05.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

21. Rishennia Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy vid 3 chervnia 2013 r. № 3-rp/2013 u spravi za konstytutsiinym podanniam Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy shchodo vidpovidnosti Konstytutsii Ukrainy (konstytutsiinosti) okremykh polozhen statti 2, abzatsu druhoho punktu 2 rozdilu II “Prykintsevi ta perekhidni polozhennia” Zakonu Ukrainy “Pro zakhody shchodo zakonodavchoho zabezpechennia reformuvannia pensiinoi systemy”, statti 138 Zakonu Ukrainy “Pro sudoustrii i status suddiv” (sprava shchodo zmin umov vyplaty pensii i shchomisiachnoho dovichnoho hroshovoho utrymannia suddiv u vidstavtsi) [Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine Dated June 3, 2013 № 3-rp/2013 in the Case Following the Constitutional Petition of the Supreme Court of Ukraine Concerning the Compliance with the Constitution of Ukraine (Constitutionality) of Separate Provisions of Article 2, the Second Paragraph of Clause 2, Section II “Final and Transitional Provisions” of the Law of Ukraine “On the Measures for Legislative Support of the Pension System Reform”, Article 138 of the Law of Ukraine “On the Organization of Courts and the Status of Judges” (Case of Changes to the Terms of Payment of Pensions and Monthly Lifetime Allowance of Retired Judges)] (sprava № 1-2/2013). URL: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/v003p710-13 (accessed: 05.01.2018) (in Ukrainian).

 

Bibliography

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