|Article title||Legal Personality of Public Authorities and Legal Entities Established by Them in the Mechanism of Civil Liability Regulation|
Doctor of Law, Professor, Honored lawyer of Ukraine, Head of the Chair of Civil law and Procedure Ivan Franko National University of Lviv law faculty (Lviv, Ukraine) ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8698-7461 firstname.lastname@example.org
|Name of magazine||Legal journal «Law of Ukraine» (Ukrainian version)|
The article aims at investigating into the issues pertaining to civil liability of the State and legal entities established by it in private relations. Civil legislation contains one of the basic principles ensuing from the method of regulation under civil law – legal equality of participants in private relations. By legal equality it is meant that each of the parties to civil relations has its own set of rights and obligations and is independent, not subordinate to the other one. The State as a party to civil legal relations has a universal legal personality, which it exercises through the system of its bodies and legal entities under public and private law. The purpose of the article is to analyze special aspects of civil liability of the State and legal entities under public and private law established by it. The criterion for determining the status of a public authority as a person subject to law is the procedure of occurrence and the presence of power authorizations necessary for the exercise of functions prescribed by statutory enactments. Legal entities under public and private law established by the State are stand-alone participants of civil commerce. Public authorities in civil law relations are the same persons subject to private law. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the subject and the extent of liability in relations involving public authorities and legal entities established by them. For this purpose, the legislator in statutory enactments should detail the legal status of public authorities and legal entities established by public authorities. In this context, certain prerequisites should be taken into account. These include: 1) legislative definition of the legal status of public authorities; 2) establishment of their competence as a regulator of social relations; 3) functional powers and responsibilities; 4) ability to be an independent subject of civil liability. The author establishes that specific features of a public authority’s legal personality in civil liability relations comprise: 1) establishing of circumstances which entail property liability; 2) establishing whether actions of public authorities are legally justified; 3) defining the extent of property liability; 4) prohibition to apply certain penal sanctions to public authorities. Civil liability measures should be applied for the same reasons to any subject of private relations. For this purpose, the legislation should change the approach delimiting liability of public authorities and legal entities established by them. In civil relations, if necessary, subsidiary property liability should be borne by public authorities for obligations of legal entities established under the regulatory procedure.
|Keywords||subject of civil liability; public authority; liability extent; subsidiary liability; limits of liability; status of the liability subject|
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