The modern stage of society development is characterized by rapid dynamics of information relations, tighter interrelations between divergent phenomena, and significant conceptual conflicts caused by the globalization process. This reference point for cognitive activity is also relevant in the context of study of such a fundamental legal category as legal liability. On its part, systematic understanding of the issues pertaining to liability in civil law calls for taking into consideration not only the retrospective and the trends of civil doctrine against the background of integration of legal systems, but also the context of progressive aspirations of society expressed by the idea of civil society. The article aims at identifying the state and prospects of development of civil-law liability as an institution within the framework of scientific comprehension and lawmaking search efforts underway in the modern comparative legal plane. The author highlights the social and instrumental aspects of the nature of the liability category and emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the legal phenomenon and the main methodological issues of civil liability, in particular, also with due regard for its general philosophical aspects. The article reviews the main doctrinal approaches to clarifying the issue of justification of conditions (grounds) of liability in civil law. The author expresses support of the doctrine of essential elements of a civil offense as the basis upon which civil liability arises, and at the same time notes that there are no fundamental scientific studies researching into the grounds of bringing to civil liability and discharging from it, separate conditions of liability, the category of “insuperable force”, and also the incompleteness of research regarding the correlation of such categories as “civil liability”, “protection of civil rights”, “abuse of subjective civil rights” currently observed in private law doctrine. The author also emphasizes the importance of the practical component of civil liability - its efficiency as an element of the legal regulation mechanism. The article describes the nature of qualitative changes in the substantive content of the legal liability institution in the context of development of the rule-of-law State and shaping of civil society. In this regard, it is concluded that there is a connectedness between the understanding of positive liability and the implementation by civil liability of its preventive and educational functions. As part of the issue of updating the civil legislation of Ukraine, the author notes the potential efficiency of some articles of DCFR, which have general importance for the regulation of civil liability as the institution. At the same time, detalization of certain provisions of DCFR at a high extent, the increased focus on the issues of “legal technology” and fragmentation are recognized as specific features of DCFR’s legal ideology.
List of legal documents
1. Tsyvilnyi kodeks Ukrainy [The Civil Code of Ukraine]: Zakon Ukrainy [the Law of ukraine] vid 16 sichnia 2003 r. № 435-IV (accessed: 24.12.2018) (in Ukrainian).
2. Postanova Velykoi Palaty Verkhovnoho Sudu [Decision of the Grand Chamber of the Supreme Cour] vid 16 travnia 2018 r. u spravi № 686/21962/15ц (accessed: 24.12.2018).
3. Alekseev S, Obshhaja teorija socialisticheskogo prava: Normy prava i pravootnoshenija. Kurs lekcij: uchebnoe posobie [General Theory of Socialist Law: Provisions of Law and Legal Relations. A Course of Lectures: Tutorial], vyp 2 (Petrishcheva N (red), Sred-Ural kn izd-vo) (in Russian).
4. Braginskij M i Vitrjanskij V, Dogovornoe pravo. Obshhie polozhenija [Contract Law. General Provisions] (1997) (in Russian).
5. Bronshtejn I, Pravovaja otvetstvennost’ kak vid social’noj otvetstvennosti i puti ee obespechenija [Legal Liability as a Type of Social Liability and the Ways to Ensure It] (Fan 1989) (in Russian).
6. Hachaturov R i Lipinskij D, Obshhaja teorija juridicheskoj otvetstvennosti [General Theory of Legal Liability] (Juridicheskij centr Press 2007) (in Russian).
7. Kanzafarova I, Teoriia tsyvilno-pravovoi vidpovidalnosti [Theory of Civil-Law Liability] (Astroprynt 2006) (in Ukrainian).
8. Kuznecov S i Chernjavskij A, Juridicheskaja otvetstvennost’: uchebnoe posobie [Legal Liability: Tutorial] (JuNITI-DANA 2012) (in Russian).
9. Matveev G, Osnovanija grazhdansko-pravovoj otvetstvennosti [Grounds for Civil Liability] (Yuridicheskaya literatura 1970) (in Russian).
10. – –, Vina v sovetskom grazhdanskom prave [Guilt in Soviet Civil Law] (Izd-vo Kiev un-ta 1955) (in Russian).
11. Prymak V, Tsyvilno-pravova vidpovidalnist yurydychnykh osib [Civil Liability of Legal Entities] (Iurinkom Inter 2007) (in Ukrainian).
12. Samoshhenko I, Ponjatie pravonarushenija po sovetskomu pravu [The Concept of Offense under Soviet Law] (Yuridicheskaya literatura 1963) (in Russian).
13. Samoshhenko I i Farukshin M, Otvetstvennost’ po sovetskomu zakonodatel’stvu [Liability under Soviet Legislation] (Yuridicheskaya literatura 1971) (in Russian).
14. Tarhov V, Grazhdanskie prava i otvetstvennost’ [Civil Rights and Liability] (Izd-vo UFIM VSh MVD RF 1996) (in Russian).
15. – –, Otvetstvennost’ po sovetskomu grazhdanskomu pravu [Liability under Soviet Civil Law] (Izd-vo Sarat un-ta1973) (in Russian).
16. Bezklubyi I (zah red), Vidpovidalnist u pravi: filosofiia. Istoriia. Teoriia [Liability in Law: Philosophy. History. Theory] (Hramota 2014) (in Ukrainian).
17. Frolov I (red), Filosofskij slovar’ [Philosophical Dictionary] (Politizdat 1981) (in Russian).
18. Kalmykov Ju, ‘Ob jelementah sostava grazhdanskogo pravonarushenija’ [‘On the Elements of a Civil Offense’] v Kalmykov Ju, Izbrannoe. Trudy. Stat’i. Vystuplenija [Selected. Works. Articles. Speeches] (Statut 1998) (in Russian).
19. Kuznietsova N, ‘Instytut tsyvilno-pravovoi vidpovidalnosti u tsyvilistychnii doktryni Ukrainy’ [‘Civil-Law Liability as an Institution in the Civil Doctrine of Ukraine’] v Doktryna pryvatnoho prava Ukrainy [Private Law Doctrine of Ukraine], t 3 (Pravo 2013) (in Ukrainian).
20. – –, ‘Fors-mazhorni obstavyny yak pidstava zvilnennia vid tsyvilno-pravovoi vidpovidalnosti’ [‘Force Majeure as the Basis for Discharging from Civil Liability’] v Matvieievski chytannia: zvilnennia vid tsyvilno-pravovoi vidpovidalnosti u suchasnykh umovakh [Matveev Readings: Discharge from Civil Liability in Present-Day Conditions] (2015) (in Ukrainian).
21. Suhanov E (otv red), Grazhdanskoe pravo: uchebnik [Civil Law: Textbook], t 1: Ob shchaya chast’ [General Part] (3-e izdanie, pererabotannoe i dopolnennoe, Volters Kluver 2006) (in Russian).
22. Rasskazova N, ‘Predislovie’ [‘Preface’] v Model’nye pravila Evropejskogo chastnogo prava [Model Rules of European Private Law] (Statut 2013) (in Russian).
23. Alekseev S, ‘O sostave grazhdanskogo pravonarushenija’ [‘On the Essential Elements of a Civil Offence’] (1958) 1 Pravovedenie 51 (in Russian).
24. Matveev G, ‘K voprosu o vine kak osnovanii dogovornoj otvetstvennosti’ [‘More on the Issue of Guilt as the Basis of Contractual Liability’]  7(2) Nauchnye zapiski KGU 111-137 (in Russian).
25. – –, ‘O vine kak osnovanii grazhdansko-pravovoj otvetstvennosti po sovetskomu pravu’ [‘On the Guilt as the Basis of Civil Liability under Soviet Law’]  11(3) Nauchnye zapiski KGU 87-116 (in Russian).
26. – –, ‘Osnovanija grazhdansko-pravovoj otvetstvennosti sovetskih juridicheskih lic’ [‘Grounds for Civil-Law Liability of Soviet Legal Entities’]  12(1) Nauchnye zapiski KGU 15-43 (in Russian).