Article title Transitional Justice for Ukraine: Per Aspěra Ad Astra

Ph.D., Associate Professor (Кyiv, Ukraine) Researcher ID:


Ph.D., Associate Professor, Head of the Department of International Law and Comparative Law National Aviation University (Кyiv, Ukraine) ORCID ID:


Name of magazine Legal journal «Law of Ukraine» (Ukrainian version)
Issue 12/2020
Сторінки [129-149]

. The international armed conflict caused by Russia’s aggression against Ukraine has led to a number of challenges to Ukraine’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, national security, and the need to respond to the actions of aggressor, including issues of deoccupation, reintegration of Ukraine’s temporarily occupied territories, and postconflict regulation in Ukraine. It is determined that one of such features is the use in Ukraine of transitional justice as a tool of post-conflict regulation. After all, transitional justice is a fairly common form of post-conflict regulation, which due to a clear set of its basic elements and principles in recent decades has been applied quite flexibly in various post-conflict and / or post-authoritarian societies.

The purpose of the article is to outline the general framework of the possibility and expediency of applying the concept of transitional justice in Ukraine – not only as amechanism that promotes post-conflict settlement, but which is also aimed at ending international armed conflict.

Transitional justice is seen as a comprehensive mechanism that includes four main elements: the realization of the right to know the truth about the course of international armed conflict; institutional reforms as a guarantee of non-recurrence of international armed conflict; measures to compensate damage caused to victims of international armed conflict; bringing to justice those guilty of committing the most serious crimes (in particular, the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes).

It is noted that in modern post-conflict societies, each of these elements is embodied in one way or another. It is noted that each of the four elements of transitional justice is to some extent implemented in Ukraine now, when the international armed conflict in Ukraine, caused by Russian aggression, as well as the temporary occupation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, parts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions continues. It is determined that as of now there is no conceptual consolidation of transitional justice in the normative legal act in Ukraine. The public consensus on certain aspects of the introduction of transitional justice in Ukraine is also decisive, and its implementation in the normative act is only the result of public consensus. But there is no alternative to the introduction of transitional justice in Ukraine. This is a world experience; principles verified by the practice of several dozen armed conflicts and post-conflict settlement; protection of victims of conflict, modern approaches to the implementation of human rights standards in the post-conflict period; overcoming impunity and balancing the inevitable criminal liability for gross human rights violations, war crimes, crimes against humanity and other forms of liability, amnesty for less serious crimes; establishing the truth about the causes and events of the international armed conflict, forming a common vision of history, documenting crimes and the memory of the victims of the conflict; guarantees that the conflict will not recur in the future.


Keywords transitional justice; international armed conflict; occupation; grave crimes; human rights; post-conflict settlemen


Authored books

1. Kritz N J, Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes (United States Institute of Peace Press 1995) (in English).

2. Kritz N, Mandela N, Foreword: Transitional Justice-How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes (United States Institute of Peace Press 1995) (in English).

3. Teitel G, Transitional Justice (Oxford University Press 2000) (in English).

4. Williams T and others, Justice and reconciliation for the victims of the Khmer Rouge? Victim participation in Cambodia’s transitional justice process (Centre for Conflict Studies 2018) (in English).

5. Brunova-Kalisetska I ta Kyselova T ta Martynenko O, Dialoh shchodo modeli pravosuddia perekhidnoho periodu: osoblyvosti i funktsii (Natsionalna platforma 2020) (in Ukrainian).


Edited books

6. Lawther Ch and Moffet L and Jacobs D, Research Handbook on Transitional Justice (Edward Elgar Publishing Limited 2017) (in English).

7. Moffett L and Lawther C and Jacobs D (eds), Transitional Justice and Reparations: Remedying the Past? (Edward Elgar Publishing 2017) (in English).

8. Priscilla B Hayner, Unspeakable truths: Transitional justice and the challenges of truth commissions (2nd edn Routledge 2011) (in English).

9. Bushchenko A ta Hnatovskyi M (red), Bazove doslidzhennia iz zastosuvannia pravosuddia perekhidnoho periodu v Ukraini (RUMES 2017) (in Ukrainian).

10. Porobich-Isakovich N, ‘Pravosuddia perekhidnoho periodu v Bosnii i Hertsehovyni – vyklyky ta mozhlyvosti’ v Bushchenko A ta Hnatovskyi M (red), Bazove doslidzhennia iz zastosuvannia pravosuddia perekhidnoho periodu v Ukraini (RUMES 2017) 53–70 (in Ukrainian).

 11. Uvarova O, ‘Kharakterystyka perekhidnoho periodu’ v Bushchenko A ta Hnatovskyi M (red), Bazove doslidzhennia iz zastosuvannia pravosuddia perekhidnoho periodu v Ukraini (RUMES 2017 (in Ukrainian).


Journal articles

12. Brankovic J and van der Merwe H, ‘Transitional Justice in Post-Conflict Societies: Conceptual Foundations and Debates’ (2014) January Technical Report 10–5 DOI: (in English).

13. Daly K and Immarigeon R, ‘The Past, Present and Future of Restorative Justice: Some Critical Reflections’ (1998) 1 Contemporary Justice Review 21–45 (in English).

14. Leclercq S, ‘Injustice through transitional justice? Subversion strategies in Burundi’s peace process and postconflict developments’ [2017] 11 (3) International Journal of Transitional Justice 525–44. DOI: (in English).

15. Sharp D N, ‘Emancipating Transitional Justice from the Bonds of Paradigmatic Transition’ (2015) 9 International Journal of Transitional Justice 150–169 (in English).

16. Bahinskyi A, ‘Pravosuddia perekhidnoho periodu: poniattia ta funktsii’ [2019] 4 (44) Visnyk NTUU “KPI” 74–8. DOI: (in Ukrainian).

17. Boiko O, ‘Rozvytok sudochynstva v Ukraini v umovakh perekhidnoho pravosuddia’ (2019) 40 Naukovyi visnyk Mizhnarodnoho humanitarnoho universytetu. Ser.: Yurysprudentsiia 65–7 (in Ukrainian).

18. Charnota A, ‘Pro yaskravyi vypadok nevyznachenosti, abo Pravosuddia perekhidnoho periodu i verkhovenstvo prava’ (2013) 2 Filosofiia prava i zahalna teoriia prava. DOI: (in Ukrainian).

19. Cherviakova O, ‘Vidpovidalnist za voienni zlochyny: cherez perekhidne pravosuddia do staloho myru ta bezpeky Ukrainy’ (2020) 150 Problemy zakonnosti 161–72 (in Ukrainian).

20. Chubinidze O, ‘Do pytannia perekhidnoho pravosuddia’ [2020] 1 (51) Visnyk Kyivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka 65–7 (in Ukrainian).

21. Zakirova S, ‘Perekhidne pravosuddia: sutnist kontseptsii, svitova praktyka ta uroky dlia Ukrainy [2019] 19–20 (184–185) Hromadska dumka pro pravotvorennia 2–16 (in Ukrainian). Conference papers 22. ‘Children and Transitional Justice’ (Conference organized by the UNICEF, April 2009). < html> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in English).

23. ‘Integrating Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights in Transitional Justice Processes: Vehicle for Reform in the Middle East and North Africa?’ (, 24–26.09.2014) < CulturalRights/HistoricalMemorialNarratives/Conference-Tunis2014-Agenda.pdf&act ion=default&DefaultItemOpen=1> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in English).

24. ‘PostConflict Justice in Ukraine’ Joint Conference of Ukrainian Helsinki Union for Human Rights, European Society of International Law, and Ukrainian Association of International Law’ (Kyiv, KIT, 2017) < uploads/2017/05/Blok_80.pdf> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in English).

25. ‘Peace in the Korean Peninsula and Transitional Justice’ (3rd KIC-EAI Int’l Conference: After the Singapore Summit, Singapore, February 2019) (in English).

26. ‘Transitional Justice in the Context of European Convention Obligations: The Right to Life and Dealing with the Past: Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights’ (Conference, Belfast, 06.112014) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in English).

27. ‘Truth, Accountability, and Asset Recovery How Transitional Justice Can Fight Corruption’ (Conference report, International Center for Transitional Justice, August 2020 < Web.pdf> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in English).

28. ‘Mekhanizmy pravosuddia perekhidnoho periodu ta osvitni praktyky yak instrumenty postkonfliktnoho rehuliuvannia v Ukraini’ (Kruhlyi stil (onlain), Ukrainska helsinska spilka z prav liudyny, 19.11.2020) < konfliktnoho-rehuliuvannia-v-ukraini-onlayn/> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

 29. ‘Perekhidne pravosuddia v Ukraini: vyklyky v roboti pravozakhysnykiv ta sub’iektiv nadannia pravovoi dopomohy’ (Vebinar, Ukrainska helsinska spilka z prav liudyny, 24.05.2019) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

30. ‘Perekhidne pravosuddia yak shliakh podolannia naslidkiv konfliktu ta zbroinoi ahresii’ (Kruhlyi stil, 25.09.2018) < pdf> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

31. ‘Pravosudye y spravedlyvost v postkonflyktnыkh obshchestvakh? Evropeiskyi opyt y perspektyvy’ (Doklady y dyskussyy po rezultatam konferentsyy “Osennye vstrechy”, posviashchennoi teme razvytyia perekhodnoho pravosudyia v kontekste urehulyrovanyia konflykta v vostochnoi Ukrayne, Berlyn, 14–15.11.2018) < uploads/2019/02/RUS-DRA-brochure-Autumn-Talks-WEB.pdf> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Russian).

32. ‘Suspilna bezpeka v umovakh perekhidnoho pravosuddia ta dotrymannia prav liudyny na prykladi instytutu probatsii’ (Seminar-praktykum, PRAVOKATOR, Dnipro) <http://> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).


Newspaper articles

33. Gnatovskyi M, ‘Model perekhidnoho pravosuddia v Ukraini’ Yurydychna hazeta (Kyiv, 31.10.2018) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

34. Tsymbrivskyi T, ‘Perekhidne pravosuddia ta mizhnarodni standarty’ Yurydychna hazeta (Kyiv, 9 zhovten 2018) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).



35. ‘What is Transitional Justice?’ (International Center for Transitional Justice) <https://> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in English).

36. Roman David, ‘Lustration and Transitional Justice. Personnel Systems in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland’ (ResearchGate, January 2011) <https://www.researchgate. net/publication/287007472_Lustration_and_transitional_justice_Personnel_systems_in_ the_Czech_Republic_Hungary_and_Poland> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in English).

37. ‘Rule of Law – Transitional Justice’ (The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights) <> (ac cessed: 31.12.2020) (in English).

38. ‘Sustainable Peace After Mass Atrocities: The Case for Transitional Justice’ (International Center for Transitional Justice, 31.01.2019) < sustainable-peace-after-mass-atrocities-case-transitional-justice> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in English).

39. Zelenskyi V, ‘Nastav chas dlia bilsh systemnykh i gruntovnykh krokiv u zakonodavchii sferi Ukrainy’ (, 02.10.2019) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

40. Korniievych L, ‘Perekhidne pravosuddia: shliakh pokarannia vynnykh chy doroha do prymyrennia’ (Hromadske, 08.10.2018) < khidnepravosuddiashliakh-pokarannia-vynnykh-chy-doroha-do-prymyrennia> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

41. Kuznetsova I, ‘Ekonomichno Rosiia vzhe ne spravliaietsia na Donbasi – vitseprem’ier Reznikov’ (Radio Svoboda, 07.11.2020) < html> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

42. Martynenko O, ‘UHSPL ta perekhidne pravosuddia: formuvannia trendiv vnutrishnoi polityky’ (Ukrainska Helsinska spilka z prav liudyny, 08.06.2018) <https://helsinki.> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

43. Oleksii Reznikov, ‘Minreintehratsii zavershylo rozrobku proiektu zakonu pro perekhidnyi period’ (, 31.12.2020) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

 44. ‘Perekhidne pravosuddia – chomu v Ukraini ta same zaraz?’ (Ukrainska helsinska spilka z prav liudyny, 22.11.2017) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

45. ‘Postkonfliktne vrehuliuvannia dlia Ukrainy’ (Ukrainska helsinska spilka z prav liudyny, 05.05.2016) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

46. ‘Pravosuddia na Skhodi Ukrainy v umovakh zbroinoi ahresii Rosiiskoi Federatsii: Zvit za rezultatamy doslidzhennia spromozhnosti sudovoi systemy zabezpechuvaty pravosuddia v umovakh zbroinoho konfliktu na skhodi Ukrainy, 2016–2017’ <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

47. ‘Reznikov ochikuie ukhvalennia zakonu pro perekhidne pravosuddia dlia Krymu ta ORDLO u 2021 rotsi’ (ZMINA, 11.12.2020) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

48. ‘U Kabmini sprohnozuvaly terminy pryiniattia zakonu pro perekhidnyi period v Donbasi (, 28.10.2020) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

49. ‘Shcho mozhe daty perekhidne pravosuddia Ukraini? Blits-interv’iu z ekspertamy UHSPL’ (Civilm+, 07.03.2018) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).

50. ‘Iakoiu maie buty Stratehiia povernennia Krymu ta Donbasu’ (Ukrainska helsinska spilka z prav liudyny, 23.08.2019) <> (accessed: 31.12.2020) (in Ukrainian).