Article title Methodology of Compensation for Moral Injury: Unus Passus ad Creationem
Authors

Doctor in law, Professor, Corresponding member of the Legal science Academy, Honored member of science and technology, Chairman of the Editorial Council the magazine "Law of Ukraine" (Kyiv, Ukraine) ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6385-0131 Research ID: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/M-2450-2018 r.stefanchuk@gmail.com

 

Name of magazine Legal journal «Law of Ukraine» (Ukrainian version)
Issue 1/2019
Сторінки [237-255]
DOI 10.33498/louu-2019-01-237
Annotation

Compensation for moral injury is one of the most controversial issues in modern civil law science. As a result of imperfection of the provisions governing the legal relations under study and inconsistency of the case law relating to the application thereof, currently there are different approaches to determining the amount of compensation for moral injury and, consequently, the compensation mechanisms are imperfect. Therefore, finding a solution to the theoretical and practical aspects of this issue is crucial for assuring the rights and legitimate interests of individuals. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate various scientific standpoints and law application practice with regard to determining the amount of compensation for moral injury and to present the ways of improving the mechanism of compensation for moral injury. The article examines the essence of the concept “moral injury“, in particular, the author expands on the essence of the category “suffering”, describes various methods proposed by scholars to determine the amount of moral injury to be compensated, and also describes the approach used by the European Court of Human Rights regarding this issue. The author proves that “moral injury” should cover negative consequences of nonproperty nature sustained by an individual as a result of physical, mental, moral and/or social suffering inflicted upon him/her and relating to breach of his/her rights or legally protected interests, or to a threat that such behavior may occur. Following an analysis of legal literature and case law, the author proposes own methods for monetary compensation of moral injury based on the approach according to which the amount of compensation for moral injury is determined in a comprehensive manner comprising several levels: the first one is “general” (guaranteed) level and the second one – “expert” level. The article also describes the initial criterion for determining the moral injury subject to compensation (this can be a midrange level of social guarantees), and a list of corrective factors which are the factors having an impact on the amount of moral injury.

 

Keywords moral injury; amount of moral injury; compensation for moral injury; methods of monetary compensation for moral injury
References

List of legal documents 

Legislation 
1. Konstytutsiia Ukrainy [The Constitution of Ukraine]: Zakon Ukrainy [the Law of Ukraine] vid 28 chervnia 1996 r. № 254к/96-VR (accessed: 24.12.2018) (in Ukrainian). 
2. Pro obov’iazkove strakhuvannia tsyvilno-pravovoi vidpovidalnosti vlasnykiv nazemnykh transportnykh zasobiv [On Compulsory Civil Liability Insurance of Land Vehicle Owners]: Zakon Ukrainy [the Law of Ukraine] vid 1 lypnia 2004 r. № 1961-IV (accessed: 24.12.2018) (in Ukrainian). 
3. Pro poriadok vidshkoduvannia shkody, zavdanoi hromadianynovi nezakonnymy diiamy orhaniv, shcho zdiisniuiut operatyvno-rozshukovu diialnist, orhaniv dosudovoho rozsliduvannia, prokuratury i sudu [On the Procedure for Compensation of Damage Caused to a Citizen by Unlawful Actions of Operational Investigation Bodies and Bodies of Pre-Trial Investigation, Prosecution and Court]: Zakon Ukrainy [the Law of Ukraine] vid 1 hrudnia 1994 r. № 266/94-VR (accessed: 24.12.2018) (in Ukrainian). 
4. Pro sudovu praktyku v spravakh pro vidshkoduvannia moralnoi (nemainovoi) shkody: postanova Plenumu Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy № 4 vid 31 bereznia 1995 r. v Postanovy Plenumu Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy (sichen 1995 r. – cherven 1996 r.) [On the Case Law Relating to Compensation of Moral (Non-Property) Injury: Decree of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of Ukraine No. 4 of March 31, 1995 in Decrees of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of Ukraine (January 1995 – June 1996)] (Redaktsiia zhurnalu “Pravo Ukrainy” 1996) (in Ukrainian). 
5. Pro systemu harantuvannia vkladiv [On the Deposit Guarantee System]: Zakon Ukrainy [the Law of Ukraine] vid 23 liutoho 2012 r. № 4452-VI (accessed: 24.12.2018) (in Ukrainian). 
6. Tsyvilnyi kodeks Ukrainy [The Civil Code of Ukraine]: Zakon Ukrainy [the Law of Ukraine]vid 16 sichnia 2003 r. № 435-IV (accessed: 24.12.2018) (in Ukrainian). 
7. Tsyvilnyi protsesualnyi kodeks Ukrainy [The Civil Procedural Code of Ukraine]: Zakon Ukrainy [the Law of Ukraine]vid 18 bereznia 2004 r. № 1618-IV (accessed: 12.12.2018) (in Ukrainian). 

Cases 
8. Postanova Apeliatsiinoho sudu Dnipropetrovskoi oblasti [Award of the Court of Appeal of Dnipropetrovsk Region] vid 30 bereznia 2018 r. u spravi № 201/4408/17 (accessed: 24.12.2018) (in Ukrainian). 

Bibliography 

Authored books 
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Edited books 
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Journal articles 
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27. Syrotenko S, ‘Deiaki teoretyko-praktychni pytannia vyznachennia rozmiru vidshkoduvannia moralnoi (nemainovoi) shkody’ [‘Some Theoretical and Practical Issues of Determining the Amount of Compensation for Moral (Non-Property) Injury’] (2002) 6 Visnyk Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy 44 (in Ukrainian). 

Dissertation 
28. Korchevna L, ‘Kompensatsiia moralnoi shkody, zavdanoi porushenniam osobystykh nemainovykh prav u tsyvilnomu pravi Ukrainy’ [‘Compensation for Moral Injury Inflicted by Breach of Personal Non-Property Rights in Civil Law of Ukraine’] (dys kand yuryd nauk, Ostrozka akademiia 1998) (in Ukrainian). 
29. Pavlovska N, ‘Teoriia ta praktyka zakhystu moralnykh blah tsyvilnym zakonodavstvom Ukrainy’ [‘Theory and Practice of Moral Benefits Protection by Civil Legislation of Ukraine’] (dys kand yuryd nauk, Instytut zakonodavstva Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy 2002) (in Ukrainian). 
30. Shymon S, ‘Vidshkoduvannia moralnoi (nemainovoi) shkody yak sposib zakhystu sub’iektyvnykh tsyvilnykh prav’ [‘Compensation for Moral (Non-Property) Injury as a Remedy to Protect Subjective Civil Rights’] (dys kand yuryd nauk, Instytut zakonodavstva Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy 1998) (in Ukrainian). 

Thesis 
31. Arslanov K, ‘Funkcii pravovogo instituta vozmeshhenija moral’nogo vreda pri posjagatel’stve na chest’, dostoinstvo, delovuju reputaciju v sfere chastnoj zhizni grazhdanina po zakonodatel’stvu Rossii i Germanii’ [‘Functions of the Legal Institution of Compensation for Moral Injury in Case of Infringement on Honor, Dignity, and Business Reputation in a Citizen’s Private Life under the Legislation of Russia and Germany] (avtoref dis kand jurid nauk, Kazanskij gos un-t 1999) (in Russian). 
32. Chernadchuk V, ‘Vidshkoduvannia moralnoi shkody pry porushenni trudovykh prav’ [‘Compensation for Moral Injury in Case of Breached Labor Rights’] (avtoref dys kand yuryd nauk, Kyivskyi natsionalnyi un-t im Tarasa Shevchenka 2001) (in Ukrainian). 
33. Hryshchuk O, ‘Pravo liudyny na kompensatsiiu moralnoi shkody (zahalnoteoretychni aspekty)’ [‘The Right of an Individual to Compensation for Moral Injury (General Theoretical Aspects)’] (avtoref dys kand yuryd nauk, Kyivskyi natsionalnyi un-t im Tarasa Shevchenka 2002) (in Ukrainian). 
34. Jerdelevskij A, ‘Pravovoe regulirovanie vozmeshhenija moral’nogo vreda v grazhdanskom prave’ [‘Legal Regulation of Moral Damages in Civil Law’] (avtoref dis kand jurid nauk, Mosk gos jurid akademija 1995) (in Russian). 
35. – –, ‘Problemy kompensacii moral’nogo vreda v rossijskom i zarubezhnom prave’ [‘Issues of Compensation for Moral Injury in Russian and Foreign Law’] (avtoref dis d-ra jurid nauk, Mosk gos jurid akademija 1998) (in Russian). 
36. Kochyna O, ‘Poriadok vidshkoduvannia moralnoi (nemainovoi) shkody pry porushenni avtorskykh ta sumizhnykh prav v Ukraini’ [‘Procedure for Compensation of Moral (Non-Property) Injury in Case of Infringed Copyright and Related Rights in Ukraine’] (avtoref dys kand yuryd nauk, NDI pryvat prava i pidpryiemnytstva im F H Burchaka 2017) (in Ukrainian). 
37. Krykunov O, ‘Tsyvilnyi pozov pro kompensatsiiu moralnoi shkody v kryminalnomu protsesi Ukrainy’ [‘Civil Action for Moral Damages in the Criminal Process of Ukraine’] (avtoref dys kand yuryd nauk, Natsionalna akademiia vnutrishnikh sprav Ukrainy 2002) (in Ukrainian). 
38. Maister I, ‘Kompensatsiia moralnoi shkody yak sposib zakhystu osobystykh nemainovykh prav fizychnoi osoby’ [‘Compensation for Moral Injury as a Remedy to Protect Personal Non-Property Rights of an Individual’] (avtoref dys kand yuryd nauk, Nats akad prokuratury Ukrainy 2015) (in Ukrainian). 
39. Onyshchenko O, ‘Vidshkoduvannia moralnoi shkody u deliktnykh zobov’iazanniakh’ [‘Compensation for Moral Injury in Tort Obligations’] (avtoref dys kand yuryd nauk, Nats akad vnutr sprav 2017) (in Ukrainian). 
40. Zabara I, ‘Vidshkoduvannia moralnoi (nemainovoi) shkody v mizhnarodnomu pryvatnomu pravi’ [‘Compensation for Moral (Non-Property) Injury in Private International Law’] (avtoref dys kand yuryd nauk, Kyivskyi natsionalnyi un-t im Tarasa Shevchenka 2002) (in Ukrainian). 

Websites 
41. Baholdina M, ‘Hochu otomstit’ nemedlenno! (O summah vozmeshhenija moral’nogo vreda soglasno reshenijam Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka)’ [‘Compensation for Moral Injury as a Remedy to Protect an Individual’s Non-Property Benefits’] (Juridicheskaja praktika, 15 avgusta 2006) (accessed: 24.12.2018) (in Russian). 
42. Volochaj S, ‘O moral’nom vrede glazami jeksperta: mify i real’nost’, praktika i stereotipy’ [‘On Moral Injury as Viewed by an Expert: Myths and Reality, Practice and Stereotypes’] (Juridicheskaja praktika, 19 oktjabrja 2004) (accessed: 24.12.2018) (in Russian).