Article title The Genesis of Economic Crime Development in Poland

Doctor of Sciences, Professor, Doctor Habilitated, Teacher at the Police Academy in Shchytno (Szczytno, Republic of Poland) ORCID ID:


Doctor of Law, Associate Professor (Chernivtsi, Ukraine) ORCID ID: Researcher ID: -6709-2018


Name of magazine Legal journal «Law of Ukraine» (Ukrainian version)
Issue 7/2020
Сторінки [246-260]

The problem of economic crime is transnational, and almost all states worldwide are combating it. In this regard, new ways to overcome economic crime in Ukraine may be searched for not only based on national experience, but also drawing upon the best practices of our closest neighbors. Poland is one of the countries where economic crime problems are also particularly relevant. At the same time, Polish scientific schools have significant accomplishments in the area of criminology, and thus it is of immediate interest to study economic crime in the Republic of Poland and the experience of Polish colleagues in combating this phenomenon and, on this basis, to develop proposals regarding the prospects of combating economic crime in Ukraine.

The article aims at achieving a comprehensive understanding of the genesis of economic crime development in the Republic of Poland, and also focuses on highlighting positive experience of Polish criminologists in combating economic crime and, on this basis, aims at developing recommendations for their implementation in Ukraine.

It is noted that in the market economy environment, economic crime in Poland has undergone significant transformation, and today there is a wide range of new forms of crime, with the mechanisms of illegal activities being transformed on an ongoing basis. The political, economic, and social consequences of crime are far greater than we could have expected in a centrally planned economy. Crime rates are changed not only due to changes in the real scale of crime, but also as a result of new criminal legislation, readiness of citizens to report crimes to the police, and readiness of the police to record crime reports, and so on.

The authors conclude that in fact Ukraine and Poland face similar problems with regard to combating economic crime. Transnational economic crime is particularly dangerous, since the borders existing today do little to deter the expansion of modern crime, and this makes crime one of the main threats to social and economic stability of the continent. In this regard, it is important for Ukraine not only to draw upon the experience of the Republic of Poland in combating economic crime, but also to actively cooperate as neighboring States. There may be the following areas of such cooperation in combating economic crime: enhancement of efficiency of border and customs authorities, prompt mutual legal assistance in criminal cases, harmonization of Ukrainian and Polish legislation in the area of investigation of economic crimes and liability for their commission.


Keywords economic crime; organized crime; Republic of Poland; combating crime


Authored books

1. Górniok O, Przestępczość gospodarcza (Naukowe PWN 1994) (in Polish).

2. Kaczmarek J ta Kierszka M, Porwania dla okupu (Wolters Kluwer 2008) (in Polish).

3. Laskowska K, Nielegalny handel narkotykami w Polsce (1999) (in Polish).

4. Perkowska M, Przestępczość graniczna cudzoziemców (C H Beck 2013) (in Polish).

5. Rau Z, Przestępczośc zorganizowana i jej zwalczanie w Polsce (Zakamycze 2002) (in Polish).

 6. Rzeplińska I, Przestępczość cudzoziemców w Polsce (2000) (in Polish).

7. Siron N and Baeveghem P Van, Trafficking in Migrants through Poland. Multidisciplinary research into the phenomenon of transit migration in the candidate Member States of the EU, with a view to the combat of traffic in persons (Maklu 1999) (in English).


Edited books

8. Cebulak W and Pływaczewski E, ‘Case Study Exporting the Problems of Crime and Crime Control in Poland’ in Barak G (ed), Crime and Crime Control. A Global View (Greenwood Press 2000) (in English).

9. Kołecki H, ‘Warunki skutecznego zwalczania przestępczości ekonomicznej w Polsce’ in Sławik K (ed), Today’s criminal activity. Problems of criminal law, criminal process and criminology (Szczecin 1996) (in English).

10. Krajewski K, ‘Drug-Related Offences’ in Siemaszko A (ed), Crime and Law Enforcement in Poland on the thershold of the 21st century (2000) (in English).

11. Pływaczewski E (ed), Przestępczość zorganizowana (C H Beck 2011) (in Polish).

12. Pływaczewski E, ‘Główne problemy przestępczości w Polsce’ in Current Problems of Penal Law and Criminology (Pływaczewski E W ed, temida 2, Białystok 1998) (in Polish).

13. Pływaczewski E, ‘Organised Crime in Poland: Its Development from “Real Socialism” to Present Times’ in Fijnaut C and Paoli L (eds), Organised Crime in Europe. Concepts, Patterns and Control Polices in the European Union and Beyond (Springer 2004) (in English).

14. Pływaczewski E, ‘Organized Crime: A Perspective from Poland and Eastern Europe’ in Organized Crime. World Perspectives (Albanese J S and Das D K and Verma A eds, Prentice Hall 2003) (in English).

15. Pływaczewski E, ‘The Challenges of Policing Democracy in Poland’ in Challenges of Policing Democracies. A World Perspective (Dilip K Das and Marenin O ed, Gordon and Breach Publishers 2000) (in English).

16. Rzeplińska I, ‘Offences by Foreigners’ in Siemaszko A (ed), Crime and Law Enforcement in Poland on the thershold of the 21st century (2000) (in English).



Journal articles

17. Guzik-Makaruk E and Pływaczewski E and Filipkowski W, ‘Evaluation of the Recommended Changes in the Scope of the Criminalization of Money Laundering – a Comparative Law Approach’ [2015] 7 (2) Internal Security 185 (in English).

18. Hołyst B, ‘Economic Crime in Poland during the Period of Changes in the Social and Economic System (Selected Problems)’ (1996) 10 EuroCriminology 201 (in English).

19. Pływaczewski E, ‘Możliwości statystycznego ujęcia przestępczości zorganizowanej’ [1994] 1 (33) Przegląd Policyjny (in Polish).

20. Pływaczewski E, ‘Organized Crime in Poland’ (1997) 3 Transnational Organized Crime 109–25 (in English).

21. Pływaczewski E, ‘Poland: Counteracting Money Laundering in Central Europe’ [2000] 4 (1) Journal of Money Laundering Control 70–7 (in English).

22. Sieńczyło-Chlabicz J and Filipkowski W, ‘The Polish Financial Intelligence Unit: A New Institution in the Polish Legal System’ [2001] 5 (2) Journal of Money Laundering Control 150–7 (in English).

23. Baziaruk I, ‘Ekonomichna zlochynnist ta yii oznaky’ [‘Economic Crime and its Signs’] (2008) 2 Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho derzhavnoho universytetu vnutrishnikh sprav 279–84 (in Ukrainian).

24. Kharko D, ‘Kryminolohichni problemy shchodo vyznachennia poniattia ta oznak suchasnoi ekonomichnoi zlochynnosti yak faktora tinizatsii ekonomiky Ukrainy’ [‘Criminological Issues of Defining the Concept and Features of Modern Economic Crime as the Factor Making Ukrainian Economy Come Into the Shadow’] (2010) 55 Aktualni problemy derzhavy i prava 598 (in Ukrainian).



25. Maslii I, ‘Instytutsiinyi mekhanizm protydii kryminalizatsii ekonomiky’ [‘Institutional Mechanism for Combating Criminalization of the Economy’] (dys kand yuryd nauk, 2015) (in Ukrainian).


Newspaper articles

26. ‘Odzyskane miliardy. Rozmowa z insp. Adamem Cieślakiem, zastępcą komendanta Centralnego Biura Śledczego Policji’ (Policja, July 2018) < informacje/161298,Odzyskane-miliardy.html> (accessed: 22.06.2020) (in Polish).

 27. ‘Przestępczość w Polsce związana z narkotykami w latach 1985–1999’ (Komenda Główna Policji, March 2000) 9 (in Polish).



28. ‘Vsesvitnie doslidzhennia ekonomichnykh zlochyniv ta shakhraistva 2018 roku: rezultaty opytuvannia ukrainskykh orhanizatsii. Vyvedennia shakhraistva z tini’ [‘World Economic Crimes and Fraud Survey 2018: Survey Results of Ukrainian Organizations. Taking Fraud out of the Shadows’] (PWC) < pwc-gecs-2018-ukr.pdf> (accessed: 22.06.2020).